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Module 1: Pedestrian and Bicycle Level of Services

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HCM Methodology for PLOS Segment and Facility

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So in this lecture, we will start looking at. Uh, how do you calculate it for the segment and how do you calculate it for it? So, as you remember again, what is a segment and what is a facility? So a segment is a combination of the intersection and the link, as far as, uh, you have a signalized intersection. If we don't have a signalized intersection between the two blocks, then you can continue it till you find a signalized intersection. So since. Uh, we are concentrating only, I'm sorry, only till here. Uh, that means that, uh, you have a signalized intersection here, so that is a segment. And then, uh, facility is you consider the entire summation of all the segments. Okay. So in order to determine the pedestrian level of service, a score for a segment, It is nothing but the link, uh, pedestrian level of service Corps, the intersection, but a certain level of service Corps. And in addition to that, we have another factor called the roadway crossing difficulty factor or F C D. So if you have, if you already know these two, we already told you how to order the formula formulas involved in calculating these two elements. Now, if you calculate a further element, which is called the roadway crossing difficulty factor, you will be able to. Uh, determine the pedestrian level of score for it. Segment, you know, one thing to remember in this cases, we are always calculating, uh, the segment is always in the direction of travel. Okay. And the intersection that has to be considered is always the, uh, downstream intersection and not the upstream intersection. Right. So always include the pedestrian level of service score of the downstream intersection and add it to. Uh, the link, uh, in that direction. Okay. So what, what do you have to measure in the field in order to, uh, calculate this fourth factor of which is the roadway crossing difficulty factor? Uh, it has two options. One is a pedestrian meant walk at the end of the link and then cross at the intersection, right. That may be a one situation. Whereas the other situation may be the pedestrian Macross. Middle link or mid-block right. You may arise. You may come across any one of these two situations. So for each of those two situations, uh, we have to, uh, understand what this factor is going to be. If the situation is such that the pedestrian is walking in the end of the link and then crossing at the intersection, then you calculate what is called it. Delay in walking to the end of the link. Plus the delay in crossing the intersection there. Right. And delay in crossing the intersection, you already know, uh, is given by, uh, this formula. Whereas the delay in walking to the end of the link is it measured distance for that D D and then as you pedestrian speed off S P right? So you assume that pedestrians or the stream of pedestrians are walking at this speed and for that distance along that distance, uh, along that, uh, segment, and what is their delay in. Walking. So those two elements, you have to understand if you are taking, if you are considering the first option where the pedestrian walks till the end and then crosses at the intersection. However, if you consider the second option where the pedestrian Macross mid-block, then you are to calculate the delay of such pedestrians. We're trying to cross mid-block. So we'll tell you how each of these delays you can calculate. In order to determine the FCD factor. So in order to know the pedestrian level of score, uh, pedestrian level of service score for a segment, right? You have to know the pedestrian level of service score of the link. You have to know the pedestrian level of service score of the downstream intersection in the direction of travel. Okay. You have to know both of those. Multiplied by, uh, uh, certain factors, uh, N added to her, um, added to her constant. All of this has to be then multiplied by what is called D F C D factor. The FCD factor is given by this formula. Again, it's a quadratic function link. Uh, what the FCD tells you is that. You already know your link score. You already know your intersection score. All you have to calculate is this delay that the passenger, uh, encounters and that, that delay depends upon those two options are the two conditions that we already discussed. The pedestrian may. Walk the entire segment or walk the entire link and then cross at the intersection sec case to the pedestrian Macross mid-block. So it is the minimum delay. If the walk, the entire segment, if the cross mid-block or 60 seconds. So whichever is the minimum that is, will be the delay. So once you determine the deleter log it in here, you already know. What these two are, you will get that you further plugin that value here. So it becomes a quadratic equation, right? And you will get the, uh, pedestrian level of score for the segment. Okay. So this is capped at 60, meaning this is the minimum of these three. So even if the delay are faced by a pedestrian crossing, mid-block is greater than 60 seconds are greater than a minute. But we'll cap it only at 60, at 67. So once you know that, so now you have calculated the pedestrian level of service score for an intersection and link. And now you have calculated for that segment as well. Once you know all of these, then you have to calculate the pedestrian level of service score for the facility. Now, this. Uh, combines the scores previously calculated for each of its components for the pedestrian space available and all of these components, but it's in scores. Again, you have to calculate now the average weighted score of the segment legs. You remember just easy to remember is a segment is usually a combination of. Do elements of link and intersection, whereas a facility it's a combination. It's a weighted average combination, weighted average combination off segments. Okay. That's how you have to remember if you just have to remember it off the top of your head. So we already know all of this. Now, if we calculate a weighted average score of all of these segments, you will determine that, uh, pristine level of service score for the facility. Okay. Weighted average is weighted by the lengths. So how much length is the each segment? That is how, uh, the pedestrian level of scores of each of those segments are weighted. Again, it is in the direction of travel and always the downstream intersection is taken into account. So once you know the score and you know, the pedestrian space available for the adult facility, then you will be able to determine the pedestrian level of service offered for them offered by the facility. The average space per pedestrian for the facility for the entire facility will be given by the. Bye bye. Just the summation of all the links of the segments divided by summation of all the links divided by average space per pedestrian for each segment, right length by segment some Dover length by segment. So this is link by segment divided by the area of the pedestrian per that segment. Some Dover, all the segments I want to M which is, uh, in the denominator. And then in the numerator, it is the length of each of the segments summed from segment. I is equal to one, two M segments. Okay. That will give you the average space per pedestrian of the entire facility, average space per pedestrian. Now the PLS score of that entire facility will not depend upon. The weighted average. Remember we told you that it should be the weighted average of all the links of the segments to the length of the segment. I, the pedestrian, uh, level of service score for the segment, right? PLO score for the segment. I there's some Dover from segment one to, uh, segment M divided by just the lengths of each of the segments. One, two. Yeah. Okay, that'll give you the pedestrian level of service score for the facility. What F so when you say F and you say, I, uh, when you say P it is for the, uh, when he says SEG you for the segment, B is always a pedestrian. I would be the intersection and L would be the lick similarly. This is a same, uh, table that we have already shown you for the different links. This can be developed for the different facilities as well. Okay. Uh, the STM authors have a small warning saying that the facility PLRs, the facility pillars can suggest acceptable operations of the facility. When in reality, certain segments are operating at an unacceptable level of service. So what happens is that since you are doing a weighted average of all the segments in order to calculate the pedestrian level of service or the facility, uh, as a whole, uh, within that facility, certain segments may still be operating under an acceptable level of service, but that may be only for a smaller length, uh, because it is weighted average of the segment lengths. Uh, but even, even, uh, if that small length is operating at an unacceptable. Uh, pedestrian level of service, but the entire facility may be, uh, having a good personal level of service. So if you are looking at it at a facility, uh, scale, uh, then you may not get a realistic, uh, uh, understanding of the micro level, uh, micro and level of service scores, or the micro personal level of service. Uh, offered by individual links and intersections in that facility. Uh, so your, if you have to, uh, know the micro level, then you have to calculate the link or the intersection, uh, pedestrian level of service scores, uh, in order to, uh, uh, make, uh, identified, uh, uh, changes or make, uh, very, uh, pertinent changes, uh, spacial changes in your network. Okay. So the facility scores may not be always representative of the individual level of service along along that facility. So you have to be careful when you're conducting or when you are, uh, depicting a pedestrian level of service of the entire facility. So let us give you a example of a simple example where you will understand what are all the inputs that are needed. Inputs, meaning what are all the data that you have to actually collect in the field? If there is already a data, uh, that is available, then it just becomes an exercise of, uh, plugging in that data, into this particular equation and determining the pedestrian level of service. However, in Indian conditions, you may not have all this data available to you, uh, at a point in time. So you may have to undertake an exercise of picking a facility. Picking different links within that facility picking different intersections within that facility. And then calculating the pedestrian level of service score for each of those intersections links, summing it up to a segment level and then summing it up to her. So if you were to, we'll be asked to determine the pedestrian link, uh, pedestrian level of service score and the corresponding pedestrian level of the roadway using the. Uh, at C 2010, uh, methodology, how would you do it? So for example, you then have to know what is the sidewalk here? It has given us 10 feet, you're low, the outside lane width. So go back to the formula. Remember the outside lane, it isn't necessarily in order to determine the effective width. So you're not the outside lane width. You have to know the bicycle lane width. If a bicycle lane is present in this case, there is no bicycle in that is present. You have to know either the shoulder or the parking lane width, right? You have to know the percentage of segment with occupied on street parking. If it on street, parking is permitted alongside that facility, you have to know what percentage of that segment, 50% or 0.5 or whatever you have to know that percentage. You have to know if there are barriers, which is just it. Uh, zero one or a yes, no kind of, uh, uh, input that you require. You have to know the buffer wit landscape buffer with, since there is no barrier, no trees. So the buffer with will also be zero in this case, right? Uh, curb presence, yes or no. Do you have a carbon gutter are carbon that a facility, like again, a zero or one and a yes or no, kind of an input, the number of travel lanes. So this case there are two lanes. Uh, directional volume. You have to know the volume of vehicles. Remember volume of vehicles is important under Wickler running speed is also important. So we go running speed say is in miles per hour, 35 miles per hour. Now, given all of this situation, first, you have to start understanding what is the link pedestrian level of service. Right. We have told you all these, uh, what are the individual formulas for this? So the link pedestrians are for in order to calculate the link pedestrian service. Remember you have to know that, uh, weighted, uh, or the effective weight of the, um, outside lane, uh, bicycle lane, as well as the, um, parking or a shoulder, shoulder width. So that WL, you have to know that. Uh, um, a bit of the outside, uh, effective with other, um, outside shoulder lane, plus the bicycle Lin percentage of parking, if there is any buffer wit, and if there is a, um, uh, uh, what is the effective, uh, width of the sidewalk? Uh, remember, remember this table. So since, uh, remember we for different conditions, you had to have you to use different, uh, uh, formulas to find out the width. So in this condition, what we have noticed is that, uh, since the, uh, volume of vehicles is seven zero six, which is greater than one 60 regular, uh, vehicles per hour. So we will use this formula to calculate the, uh, uh, to calculate all the. Uh, w V uh, w V again, uh, we had to pick which formula either this formula, that formula. Uh, so if, if the, if the condition is satisfied, you do this, you do this. If it is not satisfied, you just, uh, use, uh, the other form. So in this case, distance, from the gutter to the inside of the closest train, eight feet of parking, plus 12 feet of travel Lin, right? You have eight feet of parking. That's 12 feet of traveling. So that gives you 20 feet. Our distance from the outside is to close travel. Lin. Eight feet of parking is given 50% of it has, uh, has parking. So, you know, all of these three, once you know, all of these three, what is given, uh, how do you, uh, determine this factor of, uh, buffer a buffer area? Coefficient is 5.37. If. If it is continuously present at a height of, uh, at least three feet, but in this case, it is not present. Uh, nothing is given to you, uh, saying that it is continuously present and the height of it is three feet. So we will consider the FPS one, right. Uh, buffer with, since no buffer has been, uh, mentioned. Uh, so we will, uh, take it as Zillow and the adjusted sidewalk width available. Is that right? Actual sidewalk WIC, because we have not said that anything is encroached upon on that sidewalk. So we will actually take the entire width. Okay. Uh, in this case, uh, the sidewalk. Uh, so if you calculate, if we just put a 10 here, so you will know the, uh, factor of sidewalk, uh, sidewalk, presence, coefficient, uh, which comes out to be three. We already know this. We already know this. We are not the average average speed here. We will know each of these factors. Now, if you just calculate each of this, you will say that you will see that you get a score off the link score of 1.98. So you will have, you've already got the link score of 1.98. You've already calculated. Uh, uh, you must, we must have had, uh, the average space are in this case, you don't even have to calculate the outer space because it is already satisfying this criteria of less than, less than, or equal through a two, if it is less than or equal to you can, um, You can categorize that as a pedestrian level of service. Yes. Uh, we will just go back to see if there is, uh, um, value given to the, yeah. I wouldn't space available. Um, because the space is also one of the factors, which, um, which is, uh, necessary in order to find out, um, the pedestrian level of service score. So in this case, we assume that a pedestrian space of, uh, something greater than, uh, 60, uh, was provided. And hence you get a pedestrian level of service of eight. Uh, similarly now, uh, in the second example, what we want to find out is if you have multiple such segments, multiple links and intersections. Now, if you want to calculate, uh, the pedestrian level of service of the entire facility, how do you, how do you, how do you do that? You have to calculate their personal level of scores for individual segments, and you have to have an average. Uh, pedestrian space in square foot in order to understand that. So if you are given three different segments, and if you are told that, uh, the segment, uh, person level of scores are this, each of the segments are, uh, this kilometers long and the area, uh, average area available along the segments along each of these segments are this. So, this is a very, uh, a very simplistic where you are given already the area. And you are given each of these segments, pedestrian, uh, a level of score, uh, for each of the segments. Then all you have to do is because, uh, you just have to calculate the weighted average and we have already given you the formula. So each is a submission of each of the lens, and this is the submission of the length divided by the areas. So, you know, uh, that the average space, average pedestrian space available in the facility is 25.60. Uh, in order to calculate the pedestrian level of score level of service score for the entire facility, you have to, again, just do a weighted average of the pedestrian individual pedestrian level of service course for the segments, uh, by the, by their length and divided up by the individual lengths. So if you know each of them, and if you know each of the links. You will know that the personal level of service for the entire facility is 3.59 or 3.6. So by knowing both of these, by knowing both of these, you kind of come to this, uh, table, you'll see that, uh, it is 25. So it will fall in this category. And this is 3.6. So it falls in this category. So your level of service for the entire facilities, B. Right. So this is a very simplistic, uh, example. We gave you, uh, the individual pedestrian level level of service, uh, for the individual segments. Uh, but, uh, if you are also told to calculate the pedestrian level of scores for all the segments, you should be able to do it because you know how to calculate the pedestrian level of service scores for the intersections, as well as how to calculate the pedestrian level of score for the, uh, intersections as well. So intersection plus. Uh, link, we'll give you the segment and then you, um, a weighted average of all the segments, we'll give you the, uh, pedestrian level of service score for the facility. Okay. So that, uh, hopefully, uh, it was an extended session, uh, from the last lecture as well. Uh, where in the last lecture, we only told you about how to calculate the pedestrian, uh, level of service for the link. Uh, and the intersection in this section, in this lecture, we continued from that to tell you about, uh, how to calculate the pedestrian level of service for the, uh, for the entire segment and then for the entire facility. Uh, so you have to look at both of these lectures, uh, in a, in a, in one go in one in, in, uh, continuously in order to understand, uh, the entire picture. Uh, we have also told you, uh, given you a simple examples, Of how to calculate each of the level of service, hopefully, uh, you would be able to now, uh, take this methodology and develop pedestrian level of service scores for, uh, different facilities in your city as well. These are the differences essentially we have used, uh, uh, the Axiom 2010 method, uh, and, uh, all of the calculations are, uh, based on this study that was used for developing the 2010 models. Uh, so in conclusion, uh, one thing to remember is that there are, uh, different units for a facility, right? For a pedestrian facility, you have different units. So you have to consider each of the units separately when you're trying to develop a pedestrian level of service score. Right. So if there's a, this is a, if this is a pedestrian, if this is a facility and you're walking along this direction, so an intersection pedestrian level of service would be this. So you're calculating a pedestrian level of service for an intersection, which may or may not have a signal, right? It may or may not have a signal because not all signals are not all intersections are signalized. So if you're only looking at this, you're looking at. Uh, pedestrian level of service score for an intersection or that is given by, uh, I, I, uh, whereas if you are looking at a link, you're looking at only this segment, so that is the pedestrian level of service score for only a link. Right? Right. Uh, now, if you are looking at, uh, uh, a link plus the downstream intersection, Right. If you're looking at the link, plus the downstream intersection, given that this intersection is also signalized, right? If it is not signalized, then you have to carry it on to the next signalized intersection. So say that this is this next signalized intersection, or that will be the segment, right? So that is a given by icing person level of service score. And then if you're looking at the entire facility, then you have to take it. And go to Lee downstream signal. Okay. So that will consist of multiple segments. This will be segment one. This will maybe segment two, right? So that segment one and segment two together will constitute the facility. So we have given you an entire understanding of how to develop the pedestrian level of service scores for intersections links, segments, as well as the facility. Which will now allow you to take it forward and do it for your own safety, your top.