Loading

Module 1: Pedestrian Characteristics and Flow Models

Nota de Estudos
Study Reminders
Support
Text Version

Pedestrian Flow Characteristics on Facilities

Set your study reminders

We will email you at these times to remind you to study.
  • Monday

    -

    7am

    +

    Tuesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Wednesday

    -

    7am

    +

    Thursday

    -

    7am

    +

    Friday

    -

    7am

    +

    Saturday

    -

    7am

    +

    Sunday

    -

    7am

    +

In this lecture, Let us, uh, look at the different types of, uh, pedestrian facilities and, uh, what are the important issues in each of these types of, and facilities and how can you, uh, develop the flow parameters? For each of these, uh, or different types of pedestrian facilities, what we'll look at, we've already started to look at, uh, footpaths and, um, sidewalks. We'll also look at crosswalks, what is essential there, uh, and also a little bit of, uh, staircases and, uh, box. So, uh, um, when we talk about, uh, sidewalks and footpaths, the. There are, uh, different, uh, examples all across India, right? Um, we have some pictures from, uh, Jeb or Delhi, Buena gang talk and, uh, Hyderabad. So, uh, while in jeopardy, uh, in the old airport area, you would see, uh, in the shopping places, they have a shade, they have natural, not natural, but build shade. Uh, so that, uh, the Walker or the pedis, the pedestrians have the shoppers can, um, be shielded from the harsh weather. Um, whereas in new Delhi you would see, uh, especially around the busy areas, uh, ITO and such, you'd see, there are much wider sidewalks. Uh is, uh, uh, retrofitting some of the areas, shopping areas with a newly designed, the new design guidelines are being followed and they are being, uh, uh, sidewalks are been developed. Whereas gang talk, uh, has led the way in showing that, uh, B even in hilly areas, Uh, if the pedestrian facilities are developed in a proper fashion, there'll be a lot of people willing to use it, especially tourists who would otherwise want to use motorized modes to go around the city. Uh, they have made sure that the enough pedestrian only zones and they have restricted the width of, uh, um, uh, uh, lanes that can occupy that can carry the vehicles. So the restricted, those leads they have created. Uh, pedestrian only zones and also Charmin, which is an old, very old city. And especially, uh, my Hyderabad is old, but the German area is even older. And, uh, um, uh, where the, uh, uh, so pedestrian facilities used to be congested. Now they're trying to decongest that area, uh, and try to improve the pedestrian flow there, because what they have noticed is that if there are more people, people, uh, who, uh, are walking along these sidewalks, Uh, they tend to, uh, shop more, uh, and in turn, uh, help the local economy, uh, as opposed to people who are on a, uh, two wheelers or four wheelers, they tend to just cross the area and go by very quickly, rather than wait there and shop. So they have kind of found this relationship between a local economy and walking. So they are, they're trying to decongest the area on Charmin. And we pedestrianize those areas, right. It has also been noticed, uh, and was published in, uh, the that, uh, uh, unlike, um, uh, unlike, uh, vehicular, uh, uh, behavior, which has, uh, two prominent peaks, the morning peak, and the evening peak here, there are, uh, the morning peak, uh, there is the morning peak and the evening peak. The evening peak is much lower than the morning peak. And also there isn't a afternoon peak, right? So if you see that around 1:00 PM one to two PMs, there is a high number of pedestrian, uh, walking along the different facilities. So that could be because a, it could be a. Uh, the lunch break time for offices. So people walk out of the offices to go for lunch. Be, uh, afternoon's a weekend afternoons are usually, uh, the time when people we'll go out shopping. So that creates another peak. Right? So a morning peak usually, yes. Everybody's walking to go to their work, uh, school, wherever evening pig they're returning back. Uh, the peak is not as high as the. Uh, mining peak. Uh, so that shows maybe the evening, a lot of people are tired and then they usually, uh, do not want to walk so much. Maybe they are taking a Lyft from somebody, uh, uh, in the office or they are carpooling or they're using a motorized means. So morning they might have walked, but in the evening they are not walking as much. Uh, however, there's another peak in the afternoon, uh, which, uh, uh, which is a significant peak as close as. Uh, same as the morning, if not even higher than the morning. So shopping trips are, uh, uh, eating trips during the weekdays indicates that'd be cool. Uh, very important. Pedestrian facility is crosswalk, right? Crosswalk is. Is one facility where, uh, many, uh, all of the pedestrians interact with the motorized vehicles. Now these crosswalks could be at signalized intersections, uh, and sometimes crosswalks are also, uh, put at mid-block sections, which has to be put very carefully. Uh, but there are instances where there are marked crosswalks at mid-block sections because. The distance between one intersection to the next intersection is, uh, too high. So usually, uh, if anybody wants to, uh, uh, cross the road, they would not walk to the nearest intersection because that is too far a distance. So they want to cross mid-block. So at that point, rather than, uh, not putting in a crosswalk, which, uh, encourages, uh, jaywalking and illegal behavior. So it is better to. Put a marked crosswalk, but it has to be very carefully designed. Um, so that there are not, uh, there are not any accidents that happens between the pedestrians under a vehicular traffic right now, if it is, if it is a, if it is at a signalized intersection, Uh, it has to be taken care of that there is, uh, uh, pedestrian green that has given, right, so that the, uh, people know what time when to cross and when the red pedestrian sign is, uh, eliminated, that means the pedestrians should be not crossing, uh, our, that signalized intersection. Right. So the pedestrians also know that you don't have to. Uh, suddenly jump across this crosswalk, uh, because now you are, you have a pedestrian signal, which will indicate when you should cross. So this is something that is very, very helpful. Uh, these are different, uh, examples of different types of, um, uh, crossings that are available. The most simple, a simple one is the a button activated, right? So there are buttons on long pedestrian poles. Which the pedestrians can come and, uh, press. And when it turns a green for them. So it has now turned green. So now the pedestrians can cross and it must have turned red for the cars as well. Now, when this is red, the cars are moving. Whereas the pedestrians are that the other ones, uh, more, uh, um, uh, most sophisticated ones are the ones that have, um, a button, but also has it. Uh, sensor on top of it. So what had happened, what, uh, those kinds of signals do is that, uh, as soon as it detects anybody, uh, any, uh, pedestrian waiting to cross, there is no need for anybody to press the button. It automatically turns the signal from red to green, for the pedestrians and from green to red for the, uh, uh, gods and the pedestrian can cross. Uh, similarly, uh, two cars crossing is, uh, it is both for pedestrians and bicyclists. So now in this case, uh, both the behavior, it is more complex now because of the behavior of the cyclists, uh, and the pedestrians are different. However, they're both non-motorized modes of transport, so they are kind of combined. And the signal that is given has both the signal head offer a pedestrian as well as a bicycle. That it's a combined model. So there are, these are all different types of, uh, when crossing pedestrian and bicycle crossing that can be, uh, incorporated at, uh, at, uh, at your context, specific location. Then if it's a residential street, uh, um, you may not want to, uh, I have sensors and all that. Maybe I'm okay with just having a Pelican crossing, but whereas if it's a very crowded junction, uh, then it is better to have a sensor which is always working, uh, to give, uh, space, uh, or give crossing time to the pedestrians to cross. Okay. Now some of the, uh, important terminologies, uh, to understand, uh, for, uh, the crossing situation is that, uh, usually what people are looking for is the gap between the vehicles. Right. So this is especially okay. Again, I should, uh, uh, clarify, this is a crosswalk at uncivilized intersections, right? So there is no signal, but we have putter crosswalk here. Uh, also, uh, this is very, very, uh, important in, uh, in, in case of, uh, uh, intersections where the signalized intersections are too far away from each other. So people will not walk all the time, uh, our way to the next junction. In order to cross, but they would want to cross where they are. Okay. So when you are also, if you put in only a pedestrian signal, right, you can put an only a pedestrian signal here. So there are no, uh, there are no, um, uh, signals for the vehicles, but there's only a pedestrian signal. So how do you design that pedestal signal? What is, what is it that you look for? Something, uh, at an unsynchronized intersection? What there, what people look for is that gap between two vehicles. If they perceive, if a person perceives that there is enough gap between two cars that allows him to cross the road, he or she will take that gap. However, if they perceive that this gap is not sufficient, then they would not take the gap, which in turn means that they would still be waiting at this point. Right? So there's a gap which a person accepts. And there is a gap that a person rejects. So usually what happens is there are multiple rejected gaps. That means the space between the vehicles is too less for this person to cross. So the weight and the weight and the weight, the reject multiple gaps. And then there is a gap which the see or perceive that is sufficient for them to cross. And then they accept that gap. So. It is very essential to find out what are the, how, which are the gaps that are being rejected by pedestrians, and which are the gaps that have been accepted by pedestrians in order to find out what is called a critical gap. It's a critical gap is a minimum gap size and traffic stream, which will allow the entry of a pedestrian to cross the road. So now, because the behavior is different for different people. So some people for one, uh, uh, elderly people, they might need a larger gap, right? So they will be rejecting many gaps before accepting something. Whereas, uh, for younger people, they might need, uh, uh, very short, uh, gap and they will not reject many. And they'll just accept the first possible cap that is available so that it would be, uh, a way, uh, that is the way in which. Uh, pedestrian crossings are designed at, on signalized intersections. So pedestrian, wait time in turn, is that time lost between the arrival of the pedestrian, the crossing point and the starting of the crossing maneuver or So pedestrian, wait time is, how long is this pedestrian waiting before he, or she accepts the gap? Right. So in, uh, adjust to any easy way to make you understand is that. Uh, say there is, uh, you have data, this, so this is hypothetical data. So, uh, you have a spending data, okay. Maybe monthly, maybe daily spinal spending data. And you have how many people spend that much. So you're found out that less than the, there are, uh, uh, less than thousand rupees are spent every day by 22 people, whereas thousand to 2000 is spent by 45 and so on and so on. So what this, uh, how do you develop these critical gaps? It's to understand that cumulative frequency of the, uh, number of people who are less than a certain type and the cumulative frequency of, uh, people, uh, of sort of the people who are greater than a Saturn. If you develop a car. Of people, something greater than a certain type and a cumulative curve of people, less than a certain type, both of them would intersect at a point. And that point, usually we call it as critical gap. So in order to understand a critical gap, you just have to, uh, develop cumulative frequency and the way to develop cumulative frequency is very easy. So if you have 22, and if you want to know, uh, all the people who. Uh, have spent less than a thousand. You already know 22. Now, if you know, if you want all the people who spent less than 2000, all you do is you add 22 to 45. You will know 66, right? Similarly, you add 60, 50, 50, where you will know all of this. Now on the other hand, if you want to know, uh, all the people who have. Uh, spent more than 50, more than 5,000. So you know that between 5,006,000 it's two 41, you don't have any data beyond that. So more than 5,000 should be all of these people. Now, what is more than 4,000, more than 4,000 will be all the people between 4,000, 5,000 plus all the people between 5,000, 6,000. So two 41 plus one 52 would give you three 90. You want to live three 93 plus 97 would give you four nine. So that is the cumulative frequency Carrefour the greater time. And this is the cumulative frequency time product smarter. So the intersection point is what we are trying to develop, right? So this is the less than type. This is the greater than type. So that intersection points, so w the critical, critical gaps, the definition of the critical gap is given by Ralph who says that. Critical gap is the size of the gap. Who's number of accepted gaps shorter than it is equal to the number of rejected gaps larger than that. Right? It's a critical gap is usually given in minutes or seconds or whatever it is, right? So it is the size of the gap. Who's number of accepted gaps shorter than it. Number of accepted gaps shorter than it is equal to the number of rejected gaps larger than that is the point we are trying to figure it out. So if you have a data like this, the gap length is given in ranges. The number of people who have accepted a number of people who have accepted this length of a gap is this. Then you can develop the number of people, accepted gaps, less than the second place. So the less than two seconds will be nothing but zero plus two is equal to two. Plus 10 is well, 12% 32. That's the cumulative graph for that. And similarly, the cumulative graph for number of rejected gaps. Then the second would be anything greater than five seconds rather than five seconds is all the 32. And I think rather than four seconds would be 32 plus 27, then, uh, anything greater than three seconds would be 59%, 84 and so on. So, so when you plot these two, when you plot these two, you will find out that the critical gap is 3.2 seconds. So it shows that 3.2 seconds is that time, which actually should be given, uh, when you are, uh, designing a crosswalk and signalized intersection. Right? So there should be enough. There should be at least 3.2 seconds between two gods. And that is when you can cross. So you have to do all the calculations of how your vehicles are flowing. Uh, what is the headway between the two vehicles, uh, and then at an opportune, uh, location along that street, you provide this crosswalk, which tells you that. Okay. At this location, usually 95% of the time, that is a critical gap. That is at least a gap of 3.2 seconds. Maybe the gap between the headway between two vehicles at that location. Uh, 95% of the times is five seconds. So you are confident that, uh, because only 3.2 seconds is needed for a person to cross that road. So this, this location, is it good location to provider crosswalk? Okay. Uh, stairways. Okay. The stairways are, uh, uh, they can be indoors as well as outdoors or many stairways, uh, in, um, uh, around, uh, along the railway stations. There are many stairways, uh, where there are a level of differences, uh, or it's a hilly terrain and so on and so forth. Right? So the pedestrian volume depends on the location for suburban, uh, for suburban station. Depends on that. Train arrivals and departures. So how much weight off of your, um, staircase should you provide? Right. This again, depends on the flow of people. The bi-directional flow of people along those questions. Right. We all, we show you already the relationship between flow and speed and flow and density. So based on those relationships in this case, the speed will not be right. If people are going up, the speed will be less than the people who are going down and collectively the speed on any kind of stairway will be less than usually the speed on it. A flat road, right? So flat road, people are faster. Whereas if you're going up or slower, if you're going down or. That's lower than this. So you have to, again, that is why, uh, in the previous lecture we had told you, what, why do you have to know, understand the basic relationship between the flow parameters? You then can design these facilities in a much better way. So many times you would see that these staircases are, are too steep, right? If they are too steep than it is very difficult to climb up. Uh, and then, uh, if it's very difficult to climb up, meaning their speed goes down, uh, and people stop using that facility so many times when there are foot over bridges, that is a very important parameter to make sure that the steps are not very steep, then people don't use the Fataar bridge and they start crossing on the road itself. So that is a very important, uh, parameter to understand. Uh, there are some select places in the country that have, uh, what are called a, um, they have foot over bridges, but then something called skywalks. So skywalks are usually, uh, uh, longer foot over bridges, right. Foot over bridges are usually, uh, from one part of the intersection to the other part of the intersection, whereas a flyover or whereas a skywalks or something that, uh, connect you are that, uh, Segregate the traffic, pedestrian traffic from the regular traffic for a longer stretch of them abroad. So you will usually see, uh, in mobile by, uh, the suburban, many of the suburban rail stations are connected with skywalks because there is a huge volume of people that come out of these, uh, uh, suburban railway stations and do a wide them getting on the streets that are a network of, uh, uh, uh, skywalks that are, uh, that take people away from them. Uh, suburban rain stations to, uh, uh, appropriate location where they can then take a bus or a taxi or whatever they want. Uh, similarly there is a, uh, uh, butterfly interchange, uh, in gang talk as well, which helps pedestrians to, uh, um, weave through the different, uh, uh, different gradient or different stuff. Slopes of roads. So again, here also how much width of these. Skywalk, should you, uh, provide depends upon your understanding of the flow parameters, right? The speed and the density and the space required. So you see the, in this case where there are very few people walking, you would think that maybe they are, we have already provided a very large with, and this is not being utilized. However, if the picture would be different when the number of people, uh, when a suburban train aligns, right? So at that point, The rash may be solar. The rush may be so high that this will be utilized to a maximum. So again, it depends upon for what capacity you're trying to build your infrastructure. Is it, is it just a peak hour capacity? You're trying to usually people build it for peak hour capacity so that the system doesn't fail, uh, the largest volume of pedestrians coming. Um, whereas, uh, other times usually the situation is much. Uh, better, uh, the flow may be lower, but their comfort and their speed speeds up better. foot parts, uh, maximum speeds. A minimum speed. They're all given to you. Uh, it is, uh, it is where it would be a very good idea to, uh, at least, uh, get a copy of the , uh, which, uh, has for the first time in Indian conditions developed these relationships. Um, uh, it also shows you a average crossing speeds by male and female for different types of road configurations. Right? So if it's a two-lane undivided road, Uh, the speeds are, uh, uh, pretty high for males. Uh, whereas the, uh, go down, uh, if therefore an eight, four, nine, six lane, uh, eight lane divided they're high because, uh, they usually, uh, they have, uh, median, uh, they cross in two different regimes rather than one regime. So. Cross weekly stop and then they cross quickly again. So that is why it pizza kind of higher females feeds that usually less than the male speeds. So then, uh, you always have to make sure that when you are, uh, looking for the critical gap, uh, you, uh, you designed it for a female speeds as well. So it's female cuticles gap is how much as versus the male critical gap, you have to make sure that you are designing it for both of them. And not only for them. A male, uh, who is crossing? Uh . So here are the critical gaps for each of those lane configurations to see for a two lane road, uh, people, uh, quickly cross that, uh, people are very confident that even if you just have 2.8, five seconds between two vehicles, so the vehicle is here, uh, Our vehicle is here and we will be, uh, is here. And it's only 2.8, five seconds is enough for a person to cross. Whereas when it's four lane divided, uh, he or she is a little bit more, uh, uh, careful and need the larger gaps. Whereas if it's eight lane that the largest number of cap, uh, okay. Um, waiting time for, uh, at crosswalks. The waiting time can be just, uh, seen, uh, as, uh, in relationship to the critical gaps for waiting times on two lanes is much lower, right? So people usually take, uh, since a critical gap is the lowest. They also wait for the lowest amount of time. Whereas as a, as the critical gap also kept on increasing. As we try and assign the previous slide. So does the, uh, average waiting time also keeps on increasing and the difference between the male and the female side? Sure.