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Module 1: Pedestrian Characteristics and Flow Models

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Characteristics of Non-Motorized Transportation

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In this lecture, we'll be looking at the characteristics of pedestrians and bicycles and get into the traffic flow equations and the factors. That effect with restaurant speed. Now, when we are going to plan or design any facility, you have to understand who you are designing it for. So at a broad level, uh, pedestrians are defined as any person on foot, right? Anybody who is walking is that, but Austrian, however, while planning for pedestrians, we also plan for people who walk, not only walk. Sit or stand in public spaces, uses a walking stick, crutches or a wheelchair. We look at different types of people, old or young workers or residents as well as shoppers who are shopping on the, in the market area, along the streets. Right. This is a definition, uh, given an IRC codes. So, uh, it kind of encompasses everybody who is on foot, who is standing, who is Uh, running, playing around a mother with a toddler in the stroller, uh, a person on a wheelchair that is being pushed by another person. So all, so when you're looking at, uh, designing any pedestrian facility, we are looking at each and every one of them. And also remember every motorist is a pedestrian in some part of the trip, right? Even if you are driving a car, you have to get to your car. So while you are getting are accessing your car, you are. Most likely you walking to your car. So facilities such as, um, uh, foot parts or sidewalks that lead up to a parking facility. They have to be designed, uh, in mind, uh, keeping in mind the accessibility needs of the motorized people as well. Now, when we look at the space requirements for each pedestrian, Uh, they are usually, uh, determined by the ellipse that the, our body forms. If you look at our body from, uh, from the top, uh, the top view of the body, then we'll see our head, which is in this black circle and the shoulders, the gray elliptical, as well as the buffer area that is needed for free movement. Of your arms, right? When you walk your arms swing. So there is some free, uh, buffer area that is needed by each and every person in order to walk freely. So this is your body width, and this is your body depth. So these are the basic dimensions. These are the basic elements of the body, which has to be taken into consideration. While you design for pedestrians or design any facility for pedestrians. Now there are different values that are used based on the average person in that country. Right? Uh, some of the countries may have, uh, average height and width of the body, uh, different versus some other countries may have Heights and different. Great. So, uh, in the, uh, highway capacity manual that was developed in the United States, they usually use the value of 0.6. Meters for the body width and 0.5 meters for the body depth. Whereas the Indo highway capacity manual that was developed in India, we use a body with the 0.51 and a body depth of 0.3, five meters. In addition, the Axiom also defines that more often than not. We do carry a luggage on our shoulder, so we have to give an extra. Uh, uh, body depth of 0.5, two meters. So we have to give an extra body depth of about 0.1, five meters, which in addition to the 0.3, five meters, so that we can plan for any people for an average person who is actually walking on the street with something on his or her shoulder. Okay. So this is the average, these are the average values that can be used for designing any pedestrian facility. Next, uh, how do we define a cyclist, any person using physical power driven cycles, right? Physical power driven. Now there are electric cycles, electric bikes that are coming out. So though those do not fall in this realm, uh, in this realm, we only find bicycles, uh, tricycles, and sometimes your vendor cards that have to be. Uh, taken into consideration while you are designing for cycling. Okay. People who, who use cycles three wheel rickshaws or four wheel carts, uh, this should be cards, uh, are included as cyclists. It is very important that, uh, we, uh, plan for cyclists as well. Uh, sometimes it is noticed that, uh, Walking, although it doesn't get a lot of, uh, importance while we are traveling, uh, while we are looking at transportation, but it gets significant, uh, importance when we are looking at urban transportation, however cycling is still, uh, not getting, uh, it's do, uh, importance despite the high number of cyclists that are on our urban streets. So it is very, very important to take into consideration cyclists, along with people who walk. Into consideration while we design for an empty, uh, infrastructure. Now, similar to a similar to a, you know, the body ellipse, uh, there are also standard dimensions for any, uh, bicycles, a normal bicycle would be such, and we will give you the dimensions in the next couple of slides, but we are looking at the width or the length of the bicycle. We are also looking at the, um, uh, the, uh, uh, the circumference or the diameter of the wheel. We are looking at the, that height and also the handles the length of the handle. So that is an important diameter that we have to look at, along with them. Pedal pedal link as well. So these all play an important role while we are planning for bicycles because the handle is the one that will turn the bicycle in the direction. So it has to be, it has to have free maneuverability. It has to have space to maneuver so that a dimension of the handle is also important. Uh, now in the Indian context, we also consider, uh, uh, goods that will be transported along the. Uh, on a bicycle. So in order to consider the goods, uh, standards, look at either, uh, either, uh, um, uh, one, uh, one piece of luggage or good on each side of the cycle. So in this case, it is shown as a cylinder, but it could be anything. However, it is restricted. We usually. Uh, restrict them to a certain width. We do not encourage that. Uh, very wide objects be carried on bicycles. Uh, similarly there are, uh, standard dimensions for, uh, cycled rickshaws as well as cards that are used to ferry vegetables. Now, here are, uh, all the dimensions that are given in one slide. These are as per. IRC code 11. Uh, in 2015, you would see that an adult touring bike as, uh, uh, has a length, uh, has a standard length of a 1,950 millimeters. Whereas an adult touring bike bike with goods, uh, would still have, uh, the same length, but it would have a different. With, with rider, right? There'll be a, so these are all, uh, both maybe called, uh, writers. So those, that is the only difference between when you're carrying goods versus when you are writing alone. When you're writing alone, you would, uh, the wit to be considered this. So one 50 meters only different dimensions are given, uh, or for a passenger pictures for modified good directions. now the next thing to consider, uh, when we are looking at, uh, an empty, uh, infrastructure are the traffic flow and the capacity of the facility that you are trying to build. Now, these, uh, basic, uh, uh, terminology are all borrowed from vehicular traffic or motorized traffic, but they also apply in case of. Non-motorized transportation. Right? So the basic equation says that flow queue is a product of speed. You add density, right? So that is the basic equation. Flow is equal to U times K. Now the speed will vary. As per the NMT mode, its characteristics and the built environment. Right? So we will look now for that into what are the elements that affect this bead of pedestrians specifically before we get into bicycles. And then, uh, in the coming lecture, we will explain these three diagrams in much more detail. What are the characteristics of pedestrians that affect speed? Now, why do you first point is why do you need to look into the speed of pedestrians while designing for pedestrian facilities? Because you need to understand how many people can be accommodated along any facility. Right? So for example, if you have a sidewalk. You need to know how many people will a sidewalk accommodate apart a unit time, right? Two people are constantly moving or some people are standing. So you have to take into consideration them as well. Some people may be standing, some people walking at a fast speed. Some people may be walking at a slower speed. So maybe on an average, you can accommodate certain number of people per unit time. So that people per unit time will give you actually the capacity of that facility. So given length of sidewalk, given width of a sidewalk, you can accommodate and number of people per unit time. So this end per unit time depends upon how quickly people. Move across that facility. Right? Even if it is a crosswalk, for example, if the zebra crossing and people are trying to cross the road along the zebra crossing, you still need to know how fast the people can move across. What is the width of the road that they are crossing in order for you to give the signal sufficient pedestrian, walk time for them to cross cross the street. So that does, those are the two basic primary reasons. For which you need to know what, what are the factors that are perfect speed, right? The basic basic factors that affect speed up the age of the people that are on the bus facility, that gender. So women tend to speak, uh, tend to walk a little slower than the men, the trip purpose. So if you are walking to go to office or walking to catch a train or walking to. For some, uh, urgent purpose, then you would walk faster. Whereas if you're shopping and walking and, uh, looking at different kinds of stores or you're walking with friends, you'd be walking. Yeah. Slow. Uh, speed also depends on whether you're carrying any bags or not. And also whether, if you are walking with a group with some group of people or not, right, these are different types of just pedestrians. Which are also factors that affect this speed. Now, if you look at the built environment characteristics, so for example, where you are walking, right, that also affects your speed. So if you're walking on a road that has some, uh, uh, high gradient, right? If, uh, the roll the road is very up and down, then your speed will vary walkway with now it's a very narrow, uh, sidewalk. And then automatically you are, uh, aware or you're very conscious of the fact that you're very close to the, uh, the vehicles that are moving very fast on the road. So you tend to be aware of walking a little bit away from the vehicles and then tend to be very careful that you don't, uh, step onto the Kelly's way. So that automatically kind of reduces your speed. And on top of it, if there are a lot of people walking on that narrow foot path, Then your speed gets reduced the garbage under street furniture. Right? So now if you have a lot of, um, say for example, please, in between the sidewalk, now, this is a very tricky situation. Uh, we do need trees for pedestrians, uh, to feel comfortable while they are walking because they provide shade and trees. Uh, overall are a very essential part of the. Urban infrastructure, urban green infrastructure, but at the same time, if they are right in between, you're part of you're walking part in the middle of the sidewalk that causes some, uh, inconvenience to pedestrians because now they have to walk around the tree. They have to bypass the tree, which kind of again, reduces the speed. So this, this factor not only reduces the speed, but it also. Uh, cause it's a minor inconvenience to the, uh, pedestrians who might be wanting to walk the shortest distance between the two points and not go on a winding path. Uh, well, again, it depends on the purpose. If you are leisurely walking, then you would want to you'd enjoy walking on winding paths, but if you have some other purpose, so margin purpose, you would not, you would prefer that you walk fast. So that is one of the things, and there are other things such as benches. And sometimes of course, the footpath is encroached upon sometimes two wheelers at park on the sidewalk, or sometimes even four wheelers or part on sidewalks or footpaths. So those all cause great deal of inconvenience and also reduces the speed of pedestrians now to where friction is. The other thing, if there's only a sidewalk on one side of the road and no foot on the other side of the road, Then all the people usually tend to walk on the side of the road that has footpath. And so you have a two way traffic on one foot path to where pedestrian traffic to a pedestrian foot fall on one side of the, uh, on, on the foot path. So that again causes a lot of friction between, uh, pedestrians walking in both directions. And that friction reduces the speed, uh, last but not least of course, location effect. So you are walking, uh, through, uh, Uh, an area that has many things to see, um, museums, um, uh, good. Yeah, the restaurants, good shops then automatically your speed goes down because you want to slow down and appreciate the environment through which you're walking. And so the speed reduces. So this gives you an idea of what are the factors that, uh, the speed of a pedestrian depends upon. now based on the different types of pedestrians, there are some average values of speed that can be used right based on age. You can say that, uh, the average speed at which people walk are usually it's usually 1.2 meters per second, right? The elderly Walker, little bit slower, one meter per second. Now, when it comes to, uh, gender men versus women, uh, mean walking speed of men are about 81, uh, meters per minute. Whereas women walk a little bit slower of 76 meters per minute. When it comes to trip, purpose, work trips, like we discussed already generally are faster than leisure trips. And of course, if you have baggage, you are walking, uh, much slower, uh, then, uh, if you don't have a baggage and similarly, so platooning effect is this. We often, uh, we often walk two or three friends together and when we are walking together, our speed usually decreases. Okay. So, uh, I mean, remember, we also should be, um, um, Planning for pedestrians with luggage. Uh, so this is an a typical example say, so when you're planning for a pedestrian facility, for example, uh, a platform on a railway station, you, you have to take into account the people who help us with the luggage, uh, and plan for them as well. Now, when it comes to built environment and its effect on speed, it has been seen that. 10 units, uh, when they, uh, when, when there are, uh, 10 units of rice in every hundred units of length, right? So when there is 10 units of rice in every hundred units of length on uphill grids, there is a 0.1 meter per second reduction in speed. So as an, as an, uh, when the gradient becomes steeper and steeper, you are. But every 10 units of rise in a hundred units of link, your speed reduces by 0.1 meter per second, no measurable effect on speed up two grades of 3%. So up to 3% grid, you don't have much effect on speed, but once the greatest, deeper than 3%, then you are kind of worried. Pedestrian tend to keep. Okay. So this is what we were talking about when there is a lot of, uh, street furniture and the, and the curb is too close to the, uh, motorized vehicles. Pedestrians tend to keep 0.3, 2.45 meter lateral clearance from the colorblind. Right? So we tend to walk a little bit away from the curb line so that we are away from the motorized traffic. So. Then the average space occupied where the pedestrians and the outer space occupied with the pedestrians are 72 to 79 meters squared. So one person on average occupies anywhere. So maybe an average of 75 meters square on that footpath. So given this lateral, uh, distance that we leave along the, from the colorblind and that space that we actually need to travel, there is an impact on speed. Uh, in case of two-way friction speed and capacity decreases by 15% when the flow proportion is 10%. So when there is a 90 to 10 directionals split, so the 90% of the people are walking in one direction, 10% is working on the other direction. There's already a reduction about 15% of the maximum speed at which they can, uh, walk under. Sidewalk or football at 50 50 capacity of a two way, uh, facility is equal to a one way sidewalk facility. So if you have, uh, 50% of the people walking one direction and 50% of the people walking in the other direction, it is as good as having the sidewalk or one way sidewalk, right? That a two way the capacity of a two way sidewalk is as good as one recycled. So it reduces. The speed causes a reduction in that capacity as well. Now, here are some, uh, uh, examples from various researchers that have been done in different countries. So you would see research from India, Iraq, Bangladesh, New Zealand, Canada, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Malaysia, as well as, uh, Israel. So you would see that how the walking speeds differ. Based on weather based on all these different conditions. Right? So you would see that it seems like New Zealand in New Zealand. The mean speed is the highest, right? The green color means speed is the highest nine are almost, almost, just a little bit less than 90 minutes, meters per minute. Uh, if you look at India, uh, different studies say different things. Uh, one study, uh, has said that speed is anywhere just about 70, maybe 75. The other study, uh, says it is right. It is less than 70. Uh, and let us see. So it is around 70. So I think, uh, under Indian conditions, it is safe to say that, uh, average speed of pedestrians is somewhere around 70 meters per minute. The mean speed. Right? And the speed varies based on whether you have luggage, whether you are, uh, older than 60 years or older than 60, uh, whether you are an adult or whether you're less than 15 and whether you are male or female. So this gives you an idea of the speed as a function of locations, less socio-cultural climatic effect, right? Because all these countries that have different climatic effects, different social, cultural environment, So you can see how speed varies depending upon that. No. So a very important question is often asked that how do you identify this variation in speed among different groups, among two groups? So for example, if you want to know whether actually, uh, the speed between, uh, men and women are different or not. Or whether actually the speed between people who are carrying a luggage versus people who are not is different or not. Right? Many times the speeds are so close to each other, uh, that you feel that that doesn't seem to be any significant difference, but, uh, statistically you are always required to, uh, see or check whether those speeds are different or not. So what we usually use a statistical test that we usually use is an independent sample. B test. Okay. So how do we do that? First? You need to identify the groups for which you are testing for the difference. For example, are you testing for a difference between, uh, uh, different ages of people? Uh, the speeds of different ages of people or gender are variant. So identify your groups next. You have to collect speed data for that group, right? Sample speed data for that group. You need to correct what the two groups for which you are trying to find that statistically significant difference in step three. What you need to do is you need to calculate the sum of their differences as well as the square of the differences between the two groups. So you'll have a mean speed of, uh, you'll have the speeds of one group. You will have the speeds of the other group. You have to. Calculate the sum of the differences. You have a difference of the speeds you have to submit up and similarly, or does find out that submission of the squares of the differences, then the T statistic, which is given by this equation. I'm sure very, uh, many of you would know if you are not aware, uh, it is available in any of, uh, the common statistical textbooks. So you need to calculate what is called the T statistic, which is a modular speed. Doesn't matter of whether it is a positive or negative sign, so it's a modulars and it'll, it will be based on the number of samples for which you have collected that data. So how many samples you collect? It depends upon that, uh, sample sites. Then you calculate what is called the degrees of freedom, which is nothing but the number of sample size minus one. And finally, you will have a table. A T statistic table that will tell you what is the P value or the critical T value based on, uh, F uh, for standard P values, right? What is the T critical value for standard P values? Usually the p-value that we use is 0.05. That means it is statistically significant at 95%. So we usually look at 0.05, if nothing is specified, you'll look at 0.05 and you'll find that. Some T critical value for your degrees of freedom. For example, if your degrees of freedom is two, then your T critical value will be 4.3. So now the value that you have calculated in the previous step team Oculus, if that is less than your T critical value, then the inference would be that there is significant difference between the speeds of the two groups. Okay. So that is how you find out. Whether there is significant difference between the two sets of groups, which you are interested in finding out, and then you would know that, okay. Yes, there is significant difference. And hence, we need to take into cognizance these significant different speeds and design for them accordingly. If there is no significant difference, then you can say that you have a pretty homogeneous group of people who are walking on that facility. And you can design, uh, the facility for it average, I don't mean speed of the entire, uh, uh, walking population along that facility. Okay. So let us quickly look at a simple example that will allow you to understand all the calculations. Now say that you have collected the speeds of 10 different meals, 10 different meals, and 10 different females. Okay. So your, uh, your, uh, um, uh, your aim is to find out whether these speeds up or the mean speeds between these two groups are statistically significantly different or not. Okay. So the data collection was done. The groups were identified. Now you had to calculate the P statistic. So what you need to do first is to find out the differences between each right. 7,269 and so on and so forth, and then sum it up. Similarly, you need to find the squares of the differences and finally submit up. Then you can use these formulas here and put up these values. So this is submission of submission, uh, of the differences by the sample size. So 32 by the sample size is 10, right? Uh, then the whole square root of a square of the submissions. Let's do 56 minus does the summation 32 to the power to buy N it's spin. And this is N two and minus one, 10 to nine. So the will be 0.02004. Now you need to know what is that T critical value for, uh, for the degrees of freedom of. 10 minus one nine, right? And it's 10. So 10 minutes, one nine. So if you look at the table, the standard table that you have 4.05 and degrees of freedom, 10 Oh, degrees of freedom nine, I'm sorry. It is a freedom nine. Your T critical value is 2.262. So what that means is your diva, Lou is less than your T critical, which means there is significant difference between the speeds of male and female. So that tells you that, uh, if you're trying to, uh, plan a facility at that location of footpath or whatever, it may be, that there are significant different speeds of all the females and the males that work on them back roar. And hence you have to take into account both of these groups when you are planning for this facility.