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Gothic Transgressions

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Video 1: Tyrannies and Trappings
Hello and welcome to week five lectures on bartering Heights and today's session. I'm going to discuss different kinds of Gothic transgressions. In the previous session we talked about, uh, the terrors, um, doc Lockwood experienced when he first came to stay in Wuthering Heights. Uh, it, today I have, uh, brought a particular passage to share with you.Let's read the code from the novel. The intense horror of nightmare came over me. I tried to draw back my arm, but the hand clunked to it. And, uh, most melancholy wastes salt. Let me in, let me in, why are you? I asked, struggling, meanwhile to disengage myself, Catherine, LinkedIn, you do blind. She wearing late.Why did I think of LinkedIn? I had read unsheltered 20 times for LinkedIn and come home. I had lost my way on the more acid spoke. I discerned obscurely a child's face looking through the window. This passage is from the scene in which Lockwood spends the night at watering Heights. And he is reading a Kathy's diary and he nods off.And this is the nightmare that he experiences. You can see the intensity of the night. You can see that lock with the strength to retract his Oh, but the hand clung to it. So the hand of the ghost, Kathy, the child ghost of Catholic links to his hand and, um, sobs in most. A tactic of a wise asking, uh, to be led into, uh, the Heights and what are interestingly it, uh, tells. That it has come home. That ghost has come home. Kathy has wrote down wandering Heights and she says that she had lost the way on the more. So this nightmare terrifying asset is, is also, uh, in a sense, logical. Catherine LinkedIn, Catherine who marries a Lyndon ed Garland and of thrash cross Grange has come back, uh, after her death to what drink price. That's one way to look at it. This passage is also a coat from the novel, and it continues the nightmare that Lockwood experienced the first night at Wuthering Heights. He says, Tara made me cruel and finding it useless to attempt shaking the creature off. I pulled its risk onto the broken pane and dropped it to and fro until the blood ran down. And so the blood clues, while the previous slide is one kind of God nightmare, the second is an other more horrifying kind. Well, we see the spirit return to the house in which the Parson grew up here. We see that even the spirit is wildly treated on the part of the guest, uh, who is staying the night at Wuthering Heights. Lockwood is unable to extract himself from the ghost and. He attempts to shake off the creature. He calls it the creature by rubbing its wrist on the broken pane. You can see the Weiland's there in the passage. And the wildland is something which is matted out to a child, not to an adult and look at the impact of his action towards the child. He, he himself records that blood ran down. And so the pollutes. Even in that nightmare, you can see, uh, the continuation of the trajectory of why that, uh, seeps this novel, uh, that this novel is soaked in brutality. It's overrun by brutality and the nightmares are equally full of them. And even this apparently, uh, naive and innocent, uh, narrator is also capable of extreme wines and that to a wine and two words of the young in this novel, in true Gothic fashion boundaries that trespass. Specifically love crossing the boundary between life and death. And he puts a transgressing social class and family ties be so in the previous slides, how the boundary between life and death is crossed. We've got an example, uh, through the emergence of the ghost of, uh, Kathy. And this is not the only one time. Maybe get an instance of the spirit being met by one of the live characters in the novel. Uh, even at the end of this, um, fiction, uh, we are told that, um, the villagers have met the ghost of, uh, heat lift and Catherine walking together on the Morris. So. That does also further, uh, an example of the kind of, um, spirits walking, um, on the, on the Morris. And, um, that's proving that the boundary between life and death are cross. And, um, more importantly, uh, we also see that, uh, cliff, uh, has been transgressing, uh, certain, uh, Regulations of society. Uh, for instance, uh, keep cliff, he's a, nobody who's brought from Liverpool by mr. Onshore. And suddenly he seems to kind of acquire an identity, a position while he continues to be an interloper. Um, he also, um, Simultaneously acquires believes himself to have quiet a social club. And he thinks that he has a right to marry Catherine. The tyrannies of the father are exemplified in bartering Heights as well. Bronte follows Walpole and Ratcliffe input drain the tyrannies of the father and the cruelties of the patriarchal family. And then reconstituting the family on non-patriotic the lines, even though no counterbalancing, matriarch or matriarchal family is presented. In mothering Heights, we can see, uh, the cruelty of the patriarchal figure best illustrate in the character. he harasses, um, the young Catherine as well. He harasses his own son Linton. He harasses, um, Harrington the son of Hindley. So the cruelty of the father figure or the head of the household is, um, remarkably and powerfully captured in what Heights at the end of the novel, there is an impression that, uh, the patriarchal, uh, domain is, uh, going to be lessened, uh, at least with the marriage of, uh, Catherine Wood. Sheraton, but we don't get a representation of a metric matriarchal figure or a matriarchal family represented in weathering Heights and the young Catherine Mary's head. And, um, we get the sense that her relationship with. Harrington is going to be better than all the, uh, monitor relations that we have seen in this novel. Uh, you can see how Catherine takes the upper hand when she teaches Harrington, um, how to read. So there is a reversal of rules in which Catherine teaches, um, female. He just the male yet. Yet we see that there is no powerful matriarchal figure in this. At the end of it, Brown day has incorporated the God thing, trappings of imprisonment and escape flight, the persecutor heroin, the heroin moved by a dangerous and put suitor girls necrophilia and mistreat is Foundling and revenge. They've had the buffet. Mothering Heights is the traditional castle and Catherine resembles and Brock lifts heroines in her appreciation of nature. So weathering Heights. Is clearly a novel that embodies all the Gothic tropes. Many of the Gothic attributes, such as the idea of incarceration, he cliff gets locked up when he was young. Um, as punishment Catherine gets locked up, um, happening, the young Catherine gets locked up, uh, by heat plus because, um, She is being forced to marry, uh, his own son, LinkedIn, the son that he has with Isabella, this, this idea of escape flight Isabella tries to flee from, um, heat cliff heroines, a persecuted, both, um, the older Catherine and the younger, uh, Catherine. The hero ends up being wooed by dangerous figures, heat cliff. Um, they have the idea of goals. As we just discussed the idea of necrophilia and obsession with dead bodies. Cliff tries to, uh, dig up the buried. Catherine. We have a mysterious Foundling. He represents the notion he was found in Liverpool by mr. Anjali. We do not know his parents' age. Um, and of course we have the idea of revenge embodied by, uh, he, himself, he wants to be avenged on all the characters who have, uh, tortured him. And of course, what during Heights becomes the, uh, Traditional hospital, uh, in the sense that it represents all the perversity use, it represents all the inequities that you usually find in a Gothic castle. And Catherine also resembled some of the heroines of Ann Radcliffe because of her love for wild nature. She is absolutely in love with the Morse. And, um, the height of happiness for Catherine as well as for Hitler is when they run wild on the, on the mores.

Video 2: Gothic Excess, Wanderings and Elements
like the conventional got the cure, Willan hit. Lift is a mysterious figure who destroys the beautiful woman he pursues and who is ups, inheritances. And with typical Gothic access, he backed his head against the Detroit. The last point doesn't need any further explanation. You can see how a passionately behaves. Okay. He behaves when he is, uh, uh, water in his waist. He destroys the women that he pursues and Catherine becomes one important figure that he wants to be with. And. Katherine, as we know has married the first Catherine, as we know, um, has married at Gullane from trash garage, uh, Grange. And when he returns to the Heights, um, he somehow wants to be with her. And, uh, because of the conflict between the tree, Catherine, he cliff and excellent. And, uh, Katherine Linton stops cause of the debt, uh, after she gives birth to. The baby, the young Catherine. Yeah. We also see him. Cliff is up and inheritances property begins. See how very cruelly he, um, Kind of provokes indulgence, the drink, uh, habit of, uh, Hindley who, uh, drinks to death. And he takes over the property of weathering Heights. So there's a lot of Gothic access. Isabella, of course the woman he married, the sister of it go Linden. Um, home, uh, Hitler Mara is also is destroyed by a hippie. There's the hint of necrophilia in hid clips, Willings of Catherine's cops and his plans to be buried next to her and a hint of incest in there being raised as brother and sister, or as a few, except suggested in his clips being Catherine's in legendary half brother, we have talked about the idea of necrophilia and hip cliff. When she digs up though. Hops of Catherine. He's unable to let her go even when she is dead. And he has also tried to lie next to her by breaking the sides of the coffin of, uh, Catherine. For the critics have pointed out, uh, the hand of incest, this objection of incest in their relationship because they have been, uh, brought up as siblings as brother and sister. And, uh, some critics have suggested that since, uh, nothing is known of hip cliffs, parentage. We did not know who the parents of hip cliff are. Uh, it is a possibility that he could be the illegitimate son of mr. On show who brought him apparently from Liverpool. Of course, Hindley is the legitimate son of, uh, mr. Onshore. The probably won't, his wanderings are motivated by flight from previously chosen goals. So that often there's a pattern of escape and pursuit. Consider Catherine's marriage was social position, stability and wealth, her efforts to avoid the consequences of her marriage, the demands of heat cliff and Eka and her final mental one bring characters in those novel are in flight from seven goals, seven aspirations and desires. We know that Catherine. Merit Edgar Linton, even though she was in love with Hitler, she thought that he was, was her inferior. That socially it was not appropriate to marry him cliff. So in order to retain the social position to which she belonged, she marries at gull Linden. So she gets what she desires. Because she desires stability and wealth, which is what she gets out of that marriage. And then he, cliff returns, there is instability in her world because she tries to. Get back the same kind of, uh, relation that she had with hippie prior to her marriage, she wants to retain the friendship of Heath cliff, and she also wants to retain her marriage. So it becomes very problematic for Catherine Linden because of. These kind of stresses on her mind and body. She finally loses control over her sanity. The birds are driven by passion, lost curiosity, ambition, intellectual pride, and the emphasis is on. They desire for transcendence to overcome the limitations of the body of society of time for other than their moral transgressions. The yonder escape, the limitations inherent to life, and may find that the only escape is that the longings of the heat cliff cannot be fulfilled in life characters in this novel are. Embedded with irresistible passion, unbridled, passion, such as curiosity, ambition lost and intellectual pride. Uh, they want to transcend the limitations of body and society. The limitations of bodies, of course, transcended, uh, uh, patternly in the presence of spirits, the spirit of the person who had died, uh, there is a kind of what. Aspiration to transcend the regulations of society on the part of heap, cliff desires, uh, people, and what sessions turn on call. I called right there. And there is also a desire to, uh, Seek some kind of escape through depth and he clips desires of course cannot be fulfilled in life. And therefore he seeks his way out by starving himself to death. There is an obsession with death in this novel weathering college that is not only a literal happening or plot device, but also in primarily a psychological concern. For the protagonists that origin it's in the imagination becomes the tendency of mind and may develop into an obsession. So you can see how, in addition to that being a little bit event in the novel. Okay. And in addition to that being used as a plot device to push the novel along to make it move on to the next, uh, event towards, um, resolution that is also a psychological concern. Uh, Catherine, especially drinking it's about deaths, dreams about dying dreams, about how it would be once she has died. Uh, so this obsession with death becomes and, uh, aptitude, tendency of mind, she kind of inclined stewards that and she obsesses with it. Likewise, um, Heath cliff also desires that he becomes obsessed with the idea he longs for it. Uh, and in fact, he, um, achieves it, um, by his own reel, by starving himself. So death is an ideal. And for heat cleft, because in that way, he can be with Catherine. As for Catherine, she wants to punish both cliff and EDCO Linton, and she thinks the best way to break their hearts is to break hers. And she killed herself in a way in this novel. Awesome. Got the fiction buildings, the central to meaning the supernatural wind nature. Dream and madness physical violence and pelvis sexuality. I set off against social conventions and institutions. Initially this may create the impression that the novel is two books and one finally fresh cross Grange and Wuthering Heights fuse. There is, and impression in the novel that wandering Heights stands for madness for Weiland's for power sexuality, for wild nature. And. Weathering Heights is lawless that it is set against social conventions and institutions and thrash, cross Grange, a pattern please stands for everything that is normal and the ordinary. As the novel progressed, we realized that while it is not. The tickler to the world of watering Heights and that Weiland is all pervasive. Madness is all pervasive, thrash, cross Grange. Doesn't stand outside all these of us attributes that one easily associate with, uh, muttering Heights. So, uh, ultimately. The two and Wuthering Heights fuse together, they fuse together. In another sense when, uh, once again we see, um, Catherine and Catherine and, uh, uh, Harrington, uh, Mary in this novel, and there is a resolution of sorts at the end of weathering Heights. Endings are disquieting and satisfactory because the right to resist a definite of conclusion, one which accounts for all loose ends and explains a way any ambiguities or uncertainties be, have an end with the marriage of Catherine and. Harrington Catherine, who has come from thrush, cross Grange. She is the daughter of the first Kathy at Golinda and we have a heritage and who is the son of Hindley, the legitimate heir of uttering Heights. So it is a kind of a satisfactory ending in one way, but there's also a disquieting fact that, um, Catherine the goals have been, uh, and, um, the goals, Heath cliff are walking on the more, so all uncertainties and all ambiguities are not eliminated. Uh, from this novel. The preference for open-endedness is ultimately an effort to resist the limits of time and of place. That effort helps explain the importance of reams and memories of other times and location like Catherine's delirious memories of childhood fluttering Heights and rambles on the Morris. To what we see here is an interpretation which supports open-endedness open-endedness is ideal because it rests, finality. It reses being bound to a particular time and of place. Open-endedness. Gives importance to dreams and memories. For example, when Catherine is on her death bed, she is between consciousness and unconsciousness. She is between sanity and insanity, and she goes back to her childhood memories, the memories that she cherishes and she dreams of running around, running about on the Moore's with a heat cliff. Um, so. All these aspects are important. Uh, the unreal aspects, the intangible aspects of a person's memories are important to the structure and psyche of this novel. Most sees subversion in Bronte's acceptance of the cruel as a normal, almost an energizing part of life. And in her portrayal of the erotic and childhood, the cruelty connects this novel to the Gothic tradition, which has been associated with women writers sense and Ratcliffe. There's a lot of cruelty has been new in Wuthering Heights. Um, there's physical, uh, retaliatory physical attack on, um, he plays on a Hindley on Harrington, um, that these, uh, elements of cruelty, uh, are represented in such a way that they become almost. A part of the normalcy of weather, the novel as well as the house. So this idea of cruelty connects novel to the Gothic tradition. And, um, this Gothic tradition is also, as we know, associated with women writers such as Andy Rachleff. So what is horrifying to us as readers is the notion that cruelty has become the norm. It has become ordinary. The connection was in fact recognized by Bronte's contemporaries that Athenian reviewer labeled the garden. I think elements in weathering Heights, central cities of woman's fantasy, the connection between cruelty and Wyland, uh, and Feynman, uh, is the connection that's being talked about. The relationship between, uh, feminist writing and. The attributes of violence was thought of as the central cities of a woman's fantasy. So that's how the reviewer in Tanium characterized the presence of the brutality in this novel, they were part of a woman's fantasy, but couldn't accept, seen this novel as not just capturing the fantasies of woman. They argued dark. The representations of cruelty and barbarity in bartering Heights are derived from lived experiences from real life experiences and the Victorian world. More things, a more accurate word that is center cities would be perversities. These perversities may have originated in fantasies derived from the night side of the Victorian nursery, a world where childish cruelty and China's sexuality came to the fore. So Alan Morris, who has written on the female Gothic argues that the accurate word, um, It's not central cities, but perversities, and she writes that these velocities may have originated, may have come from the night side of the Victorian nursery, the childhood space where cruelty and trying to sexuality had originated, had come to the surface, have come to the forefront. In childhood sisters were the equal of their brothers, played just as hard and felt the same pleasures and pains, guilt, clump. This early freedom and equality will stay brothers outgrew and displaced them into their writing. So what is being argued here is that while girls enjoyed a measure of equality and oneness, when they grew up with their brothers, uh, in childhood, But when they grew up, they displaced all their pains and inequities in their writing. So writing became a space in which they were able to let loose all their aspirations and desires and pains that they have suffered. Women writers have got the time disease appear to have testified the physical teasing they received from their brothers that pinching Morling and scratching. We dismiss as the unimportant of children's games to can outsize proportions and powerful erotic overtones in their imaginations. So the kinds of cruelty that, uh, A child would experience cruelties, just pinching and mauling and scratching. They are, um, kind of retreated reimagined in their adult output in their literary output that they produce in their adulthood. Thank you for watching. I'll continue in the next session.