The key points from this module are:
Henry Fayol, developed 14 principles of management based on his management experiences. They are:
Division of work
Authority and responsibility
Unity of command
Unity of direction
Subordination of individual interest to general interest
Remuneration of personnel
Stability of tenure personnel
Esprit De Corps
In addition to the general principles of management there are some guiding principles followed at various stages:
Principles of planning
Principles of organizing
Principle of Staffing
Principle of coordination
Principle of directing
Scientific management is a classical approach that emphasizes the scientific study of work methods to improve efficiency of workers.
The general components of scientific management are :
Determining the best way to do each job
Selecting the “ first class men” to do each job
Paying per piece
Duties of management
Principles of scientific management emphasized five important issues:
Emphasize organized knowledge rather than rely on rule of thumb
Obtain harmony in group action
Work for maximum output rather than restricted output
Develop the potential of the workers both for their self development and organizational prosperity.
There are six scientific management techniques , these are:
Functional Foreman techniques
Techniques of standardization of work
Techniques of simplification of work
Conducting scientific study on work
Differential wage/piece rate
Management Thoughts are mainly concerned with increasing the efficiency of workers and organizations.
There are three evolution approaches:
Classical approach- This relates to scientific , administrative and bureaucratic management.
Behavioural approach- This relates to group influences, need theory of X and Y and Hawthorne studies.
Modern Approach- This relates to system, contingencies and quality management.