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Theory and Practice of Change Management

Module Summary

MODULE SUMMARY

In this module you studied the following:

Sometimes change is deliberate, a product of conscious reasoning and actions - planned change.

In contrast, change sometimes unfolds in an apparently spontaneous and unplanned way, this type of change is known as emergent change.
Episodic change, is ‘infrequent, discontinuous and intentional’. Sometimes termed ‘radical’ or ‘second order’ change, episodic change often involves replacement of one strategy or program with another.


Continuous change, is ‘ongoing, evolving and cumulative’. Also referred to as ‘first order’ or ‘incremental’ change, continuous change is characterized by people constantly adapting and editing ideas they acquire from different sources.

The distinction between episodic and continuous change clarifies thinking about an organization’s future development and evolution in relation to its long-term goals.
The dominant method of change today is known as the Complex Adaptive System. This method of change is loosely based on the Chaos and Complexity Theory which was in use during the 1990s.

Culture provides the context for our working lives and defines the standards by which we expect to be judged and the processes and procedures by which we expect to be involved in the activities which affect us.
When dealing with change it’s important to recognize that different institutions have different cultures.
Culture can be transmitted by: the philosophy of the institution and the approach to change which is adopted and the way in which leaders act.

The most common varieties of organizational culture include: collegiate, bureaucratic, innovative and enterprise.
The directive approach to change management highlights the manager’s right to manage change and the use of authority to impose change with little or no involvement of other people.
The expert approach to change management sees the management of change as a problem solving process that needs to be resolved by an ‘expert’.

The negotiation approach to change management highlights the willingness on the part of senior managers to negotiate and bargain in order to effect change.
The educative approach to change management involves changing people’s values and beliefs in order for them to fully support the changes being made.
The participative approach to change management stresses the full involvement of all of those involved, and affected by, the anticipated changes.

END of UNIT

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