Water Distribution to Buildings
Once the water supply piping is installed to bring the water from the main into the building, the next step is to install the water heater, hose bibbs, water softener (if needed), and fixtures. These components complete the water distribution system.
Locating the Water Heater:
Place the water heater in the most efficient location, which is usually as close as possible to the greatest number of hot water outlets. This minimizes the length of hot water piping that runs between the heater and the fixtures.
Locating Hose Bibbs:
An exterior water outlet, or hose bibb is frequently required in residential structures. The piping runs serving hose bibbs may be long, and they should bypass the water softener.
After locating the water heater, hose bibbs, and water softener, locate the water supply piping that serves individual fixtures and appliances in the building. Then locate the fixture risers and fixture stub-outs.
In large water lines or where fixture controls have quick-closing valves, hammer arresters or shock arresters must be installed to absorb the energy when the flow of water suddenly stops. They are usually placed near the fixture as an extension of the water pipe riser.
Sizing Supply Pipes:
Plumbers must correctly size the supply pipes to the fixtures and appliances and use sizing tables supplied by the state or local plumbing codes. These tables estimate the anticipated demand for water as measured by water supply fixture units (WSFUs).
Regulating Water Temperature:
Hot and cold water can be mixed to reduce the risk of scalding at faucets, such as shower valves or sweating at water closet tanks. The best way to do this is to use a tempering valve.
Tempering valves are available for residential and commercial / industrial applications. These valves mix the water coming from the hot water heater to a predetermined temperature. The temperature is set using an adjustable thermostat incorporated into the valve.