Water Distribution Systems
Water supply and distribution plays an important role in plumbing systems. Water supply is either private (from a well) or municipal (supplied through a public water distribution system).
Components of the water distribution system include the pipes and fittings that carry hot and cold water in a building, the valves used to regulate the flow of water to the fixtures and other outlets, and water heating and treatment equipment.
Any water distribution cycle begins with a water source. Click on the following systems to know the water supply source for each:
Water for Private Systems
Water for private systems comes from a well sunk into an underground water supply and is usually pure enough to drink.
Water for municipal systems is frequently drawn from reservoirs, wells, rivers, lakes, and other sources, treated, and then distributed to homes and buildings.
In municipal systems, city water undergoes a purification process before it reaches the faucet. Click on each step to know more:
Water is pumped to a treatment plant where harmful impurities are removed through processing.
Chlorine, alum, and activated charcoal are added to the water during this cycle.
The water, with its added chemicals, flows into a mixing basin where paddles mix the chemicals into the water.
From the mixing basin, the water moves to a settling basin where impurities are separated out.
Moving from the settling basin, the water is filtered through sand and gravel to screen out most of the remaining impurities.
The filtered water is held in a reservoir until it is pumped into the main supply pipes that lead to building service lines.
From the reservoir, water is then delivered to sinks, bathtubs, showers, dishwashers, icemakers, hoses, and any other water outlet. Chlorine may be added again to make sure that the water is free of harmful bacteria.
Some cities also add fluoride in the water to help prevent tooth decay in the general population.