Copper Fittings and Valves
The types of fittings and valves used with copper pipes depend on how the pipe is used. Fittings allow you to join pipes to each other and change the direction or size of a pipe run.
Fittings are designed so they do not block or slow the flow of materials in the pipe.
Water Supply Fittings
Individual fitting shapes serve specific purposes, depending on whether a pipe runs horizontally or vertically. It is important to use as few fittings as possible. Fewer fittings mean fewer chances for leaks and pressure drops (decreases in pressure from one point to another caused by friction losses in a water system).
Water supply valves
Valves regulate the flow of liquid. They may provide on/off service or prevent flow reversal through a line.
Click on the below given list of common valves used for water supply systems to know more:
A gate valve has a wedge-shaped or tapered metal disc that fits into a smooth-ground surface or seat with the same shape, allowing a straight-line flow with little obstruction. It is a good choice for lines that will remain either completely open or completely closed most of the time.
A globe valve controls the flow of liquid with a movable spindle, which lowers to restrict flow through the valve opening. Because this valve is reliable and easy to repair, it is often used in water supply lines inside buildings.
A ball valve consists of a ball with a hole bored through its diameter, mounted on a spindle. When the valve is closed, the hole is at 90 degrees to the valve body, so no flow can take place. When the valve is turned a quarter-turn or opened completely, water flows through the hole.
Ball Valve Usage
This valve is commonly used at the inlets and outlets of heat exchangers in HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) systems and in systems where quick shutoffs may be necessary for in-line maintenance.
Compression Stop and Waste Valve
A compression stop and waste valve is opened or closed by raising or lowering a horizontal disc using a threaded stem. An elastomeric, or rubberized, washer on the end of the stem seals the valve seat, closing off water flow. This valve is most commonly used for draining and freeze protection above ground.
A check valve is an automatic valve that permits the flow of liquid in one direction only. It prevents reverse flow. This valve is commonly used on domestic and irrigation wells.
A stop valve controls the flow of liquids or gases between a building and supply source. It is also called a ground-key valve.
DWV fittings are designed to allow liquids and other materials to flow smoothly through them.
In addition to the common fittings discussed earlier, plumbers can use some alternative fittings to join copper pipes. These alternatives include press fittings and mechanically formed tee connections.
Press fittings, also called press-connect fittings, are mechanical fittings that connect pipes by means of a cold press fit system.
A bullhead tee is a tee fitting used on branches that are longer than the main line.