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Banca Notes e verifiche (assegni)

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Let's explore this notion of using something
other than actual physical gold as a unit of exchange.
So let me draw my balance sheet.
I'll draw it a little bit neater this time.
So I built my building,
my bank, my vault, whatever you want to call it.
And I used 100 gold pieces to build it.
This is just my bank's balance sheet - Bank of Sal.
So it's 100 gold pieces.
When I say 100 gold pieces, this is equity.
Hopefully you're familiar with it by now.
But it's not like there're actually 100 gold pieces anywhere anymore.
I took these 100 gold pieces,
paid the builders of my vault-looking, temple-looking bank
and maybe they live someplace else
and they just took that gold with them.
So I'm just saying I have 100-gold-pieces worth of a building.
Maybe if I had to sell this,
someone else would give me 100 gold pieces for them.
And that's why I say I have 100-gold-pieces worth of equity.
Anyway, that's not the point of this video.
So I go, I tell everyone, hey, you can keep your money,
safe for your gold, safe with me.
So let's say that - I don't know - Citizen A says, “well,
this looks like a good bank,
and Sal, you've lived in this village all your life,
and I trust you and your ancestors.
So I'm going to deposit 500 gold pieces with you.”
So that becomes an asset in the bank.
500 gold pieces. I’m trying to draw it as neatly as possible.
Got the width off a little bit, but I think you get the idea.
The width shouldn't matter.
The height kind of represents the quantity.
So this guy - maybe it's my uncle -
- 500 gold pieces - deposits in my bank
because of this vault that I built seems a lot safer.
And I say, “well, do you want it all in your checking account, sir,
or would you like some cash back?” And he says, “oh, well,
I need some cash to just transact every day
and to buy, you know, supplies or food, et cetera.
So why don't you put 400 equivalent
in my checking account. ”
So let me draw that.
Let me do the cash back first.
Let's say I do 100 cash back first.
So then I have this liability here, of 100.
So it's 100 gold pieces’ equivalent of notes outstanding.
“N.O.” for notes outstanding.
And maybe I just hand him five 20s for that
as most ATMs today do.
But I just don't want to confuse things too much.
Remember, this is in my fictional world.
These aren't necessarily dollars just yet.
These are bank notes from the Bank of Sal, saying that
anyone who were to hand back one of these 20s to me
will get 20 gold pieces.
That's all it says.
I've signed them and I've made them hard to forge,
just because I don't want anyone printing these notes
and then coming to me and getting my gold pieces.
I only want the ones that I printed coming back to me.
But anyway, that depositor -
- so he got 100 gold pieces of notes
and that's what I've drawn here
and then the rest will just stay in his checking account.
So… checking account.
It's a liability for me, right?
Because he can at any point withdraw that checking account
and get back 400 gold pieces.
So 400 gold pieces for A's checking account.
A’s checking, called checking deposit -
- there are a bunch of ways you can write it,
but this is a liability for me.
These are my assets.
Fair enough.
Someone else who trusts A says – call him Person B - says,
“if it's good enough for A, it's good enough for B.
So let me put my money in this bank account as well
and I want to do similar type of transaction as A.”
Although maybe they don't have as much money.
So let's say that they have - I don't know -
- let's say they have 200 gold pieces.
So let me draw that on the left hand side first.
200 gold pieces from Person B.
That looks like about 200.
And they want to half of it in cash
and half of it as a checking deposit account.
Let me do it like that. So it seems about it.
Half of will be 100 gold pieces for B's account.
And then we also give him some cash,
which are essentially bank notes in our current universe.
And let’s say he wants it all in 10s. So we give him -
- so let's say 100 gold pieces’ equivalent, notes outstanding,
and I'm going to hand him - let's say he likes it all in 1s.
I don't know. He likes the weight of the money; or
he has to - I don't know what he does with the $1 bills.
But 100 times a 1-gold-piece-denominated bank note, right?
I give him 100 of these.
Fair enough.
So let's explore a little bit about
how some transactions can occur with A and B.
Let's say A needs to buy an apple from B.
So let me draw this up here.
I don't want to run out of space.
I'll draw it actually down here.
So let's say I have Person A and I have Person B.
So B has an apple.
That's my drawing of an apple.
And Person A wants it and asks Person B,
“How much does an apple cost?”
And Person B says, “Well, an apple costs 2 gold pieces.”
So Person A says, “Well, that's a little high, but I'm hungry,
so I will give you two gold piece for it,
but I'll tell you what -
there's this new thing called a bank
and I don't have gold pieces
and I think you know what it's all about.
Instead, let me just give you these pieces of paper that
the bank says anytime I can go and trade for gold pieces.”
So Person B says, “That's fair enough.
I'm very familiar with that concept as well.”
So Person A gives Person B - so Person A has -
- maybe some of these weren't 20s,
maybe some of these were $2 bills or something -
Let me just say they were $1 bills.
So 1-gold-piece note - actually let's just make it -
- since he's got five 20s,
let's say he gives him a 20-gold-piece note.
I should draw it in green because that's the color that
I originally drew the 20 gold-piece notes - one of these.
He hands one of these over to Person B.
B hands over the apple to Person A
and he also hands over 18 of those $1 notes that he got.
$1 notes.
These were these notes here that Person B got.
Hands over 18 of these $1 notes, so times 18.
So as a matter of fact, you had two $1 notes switch hands
and an apple was exchanged.
And what's neat here are a couple of things.
One, no gold ever had to exchange hands.
Gold is heavy
and you don't want to carry around a bunch of gold.
You're able to do very exact change in this situation.
You could imagine a world where gold is worth 20 times
your smallest unit of exchange you want.
So it would be very inconvenient to
have to break up little gold coins.
In this case, our smallest unit of exchange is
a 1-gold-dollar bill or whatever you want to call it.
But you could imagine - you could break these up -
- this bank could issue notes that are
a quarter of a gold piece or an eighth of a gold piece.
And that's a lot easier than actually cutting up gold pieces
and then having to put them all back together.
And of course,
these notes can then switch hands between people
as the economy needs, as it functions,
and the bank doesn't have to worry about anything
and the gold doesn't have to be moved around.
So everyone is happy.
Let's say that that
Person B actually wants to buy sth large from Person A.
Let's say Person B wants to buy – Person A is richer,
so let's say Person A is buying something from B.
Let's say B is a home builder.
Let me do that in blue.
Let's say B is a home builder.
And Person A is going to get him to build a house for him.
So he's going to say,
“Well, I'll pay you 200 gold pieces to build a house.
That's a huge amount of money.
I don't like walking around with that.
How about I write you a check?”
And Person B says, “Well, what is a check?”
“Well, a check,” Person A says, “is I just write you a note
and that essentially instructs the bank to transfer
that amount of gold pieces in my name to
it being in your name.”
And Person B says, “Oh, that sounds reasonable enough.”
So Person B gives Person A a home,
works for weeks to build a house.
And then Person A writes B a check.
And now we're getting an introduction to checks
and the check will look something like this.
Person A will fill out - it'll have A's name there
and it'll say “200 gold pieces please” and then A will sign it
and A will probably date it – 10, I don't know, 2008 and
then give it to B and then B can take it back to this bank.
And the bank will do the transfer - all the bank has to do is
take 200 gold pieces from here and put it there.
So this is all the bank has to do really.
Right now 400 gold pieces in A's name,
just take 200 of those and put them in B's name.
So now this is B's new share, which would be 100 plus 200,
so it's 300 gold pieces.
And then A's share has shrunk to just being this part right here.
But notice, the bank didn't have to do anything
except a little bit of paperwork.
200 gold pieces.
And that was useful
because you didn't have to exchange cash.
We talked about gold being dangerous to keep at home
because obviously someone could steal it.
It's also inconvenient because it weighs a lot -
it's hard to break up and carry around if you're doing a lot of it.
But cash is the same thing -
- these bank notes are also dangerous
because someone can steal them
and no one is keeping track of who has which bank notes,
so they're still something that's very stealable.
But a check was nice.
Because one, you could write a very large amount
and also, only if we're doing our authentication right,
Person A can write the check.
So it's not like someone could - in an ideal world,
someone could not have stolen A's checkbook
and signed for him
because hopefully this bank has A's signature on record
and can recognize when A has written a bad check;
or maybe, they'll even check with A to say
if something is a little bit suspicious.
But anyway, that's an introduction to banks notes
and checks. In the next video,
I'll talk about how we can use all of these notions
to actually lend money, also without giving out any gold.
See you in the next video.