The key points from this module are:
Before fertilization, there is an asymmetric localization of molecules.
Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk. He experimented on garden pea hybrids while living at a monastery and is known as the father of modern genetics.
Abnormal hemoglobin crystallizes when the oxygen content of blood is low, cause red blood cells to become sickle cell shaped.
A physicist called Roentgen discovered x-rays.
The Recombination Frequency indicates the distance between the two genes on the chromosome.
John Sulston got a Nobel prize for the complete lineage of an organism for the first time. And Sydney Brenner got it for recognizing the importance of this organism.
There are two general classes of phenotypes:
Dominant mutations can be divided into three categories:
Inferring functions of dominant mutations are not easy.
Cloning genes by mutation happens in three steps:
Correlation of the genic and physical maps near the gene of interest.
DNA-mediated transformation to identify rescuing clones.
Identification of DNA lesions associated with a mutation in the gene.
Historically, people developed methodologies to determine the C. elegans genome sequence. One of the methods was breaking down the chromosome into smaller pieces and cloning them in a vector.
There are multiple ways of mapping a gene, you could either block it or you could rescue it.
There are three types of let-60 alleles:
Complete loss of function- Lethal
Antimorphic- Uninduced fate
Hypermorphic- Induced fate
Beadle and Tatum discovered the one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis.
The power of mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is limitless.