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Module 1: Aircraft Structural Design

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Aircraft Structural Design - Lesson Summary

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Layout: This refers to the relative location of the various components as well as the shape and sizes if the components.

Various Layout possibilities:
(1) Wing geometry/location
(2) Propulsion system
(3) Tailplane system
(4) Undercarriage/gear layout

(1) Wing Layout could be:
High wing layout
Mid wing layout
Low wing layout
Effects of Wing geometry parameters
• Reduces the induced drag of an Aircraft. • It increases subsonic (L/d)max.
• It reduces the stalling angle of attack.
(2) Propulsion system: This refers to the number of engines to be used in an Aircraft and their location. This could be pusher configuration or tractor system configuration.

(3) Tail plane layout: The tailplane layout is classified into two types:
Horizontal tail layout
Vertical tail layout
Tailplane configuration: This could be conventional or unconventional Aircraft tail types.

Unconventional tail: These include T-tail, Cruciform tail, Twin tail, Triple tail/H-tail and Butterfly tail/V-tail.
• It should bear static loads while on ground.
• Allow smooth transition during takeoff.
• Bear impact loads during landing.
• Provide comfortable ride to the passengers.
Layouts for Landing Gear
There are various landing gear arrangements; they are:
Single main
Tail dragger aka Tailwheel type
Bicycle type
Tricycle gear type
Quadricycle gear type
Multi-bogey gear type
OpenVSP
A parametric geometry Aircraft design tool which can be used to create 3D digital model of an Aircraft concept.

Advantages of OpenVSP
• It is very useful for Aircraft conceptual design.
• It is less time consuming (i.e. takes less time).
• It provides 3-D digital model.
• Allows geometry manipulations.
• It is an Open source application.
• Enhance model creation by tracing 3-views diagram.