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Editing in Cinema - Jumpcut

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So, editing is styles we have been talking about montage, we will be also discussing jump cut as given to us by the French new wave film makers, and all these editing techniques; why are they used primarily because of the film makers invite the audience, the viewers to read their own meanings in the text, in the film. Classic montage sequences as used in cinema, we have been talking Battleship Potemkin, Citizen Kane; again the dining table sequence. The Godfather, which scene? Again the massacre scene while Michael Corleone is getting his child baptize in a church, what is happening in the other end of? All his enemies, all his rivals are systemati callybeen shot down, gun down, and it is a very brutal, very ghori scene as juxtaposed with baptism. So, it brings out the irony, very effective, very dramatically; the irony with between what this man pretends or claims to be and what he actually is. Rocky; the training montage, cinema parody so. Exactly, you know at the end the hero of the film, the protagonist who is now a renowned filmmaker, he puts together a sequence of famous cinematic kisses, why; why is it so important for him to watch that sequence, because there was a time when kissing on a screen was banned from exhibition at least in that part of Italy. So, it was thought it is not very appropriate for a family audience to watch. So, what thus projectionist would do, they would edit out those scenes and what this child would do, who is so interested in film making; he will collect all those, cut out reels and at the end, he makes a montage of his own, and kiss, watches the sequence, the immortal the famous kisses from cinema. So, that is another interesting example of montage. Now, from montage we go on to; any questions or any observation on montage? Can you think of a very effective example? Student: From movies, we see lot of things; seems to show preparation, training, even like in Rocky, it is training and in order to make it; they sort of transition to from where they were to where they want to be. Can you have been more specific? Student: I think it used in Karate kid movies. Karate kid movies. Student: Makeover movies? Makeover movies also. Sometimes it is used in comic situations as well, perhaps I can think of an example may be ‘The Devil Wears Prada’; it uses as we see the passage of time, the girl doing the same monotonous shows for her boss, and passage of time .We just see the same events being repeated, but there is a passage of time because she wears different clothes every time. She is fetching coffees, putting out the newspaper, taking phone calls and there is a montage scene. So, jump cut as an editing device now; and jump cut involves a jolt in a film’s progress .Again this technique has been high jacked by the music video people and suddenly there is a jolt for no reason or no purpose, but it is there. And it draws the viewer’s attention to disturbing elision of time and space. So, what happens is a film might cut abruptly from one location to the next, without any attempt to employ those devices or matches of eye line that are essential for continuity. So you need to know these concepts like eye line matching, and how this is disrupted or continuity is disrupted by the employment of the editing technique called the jump cut. So, it was the French pioneer Georges Melies, who first recognized that jump cut would generate magical or comic effects, if the appearance of a subject film from a single vantage point was altered between shots. So, he is the man who is credited with introducing the concept of jump cut. Remember Georges Milies was almost a contemporary of the pioneers in film making.Who were the pioneers in film making? Which brothers’?Lumieres brothers.Are you familiar with the name?These are the pioneers of cinema,the Lumiers.It is believe that the cinema of the Lumieres Brothers,you remember which was the very first movie ever been shot?Arrival of the Train at a Railway Station, it was a very linear kind of a narrative and very shortand the second great film was; Workers Leaving the Factory at the End of a Day.So, all very linear films and editing-wise nothing very innovative about that, of course they werethe very first films ever shot. But then Georges Melies started experimenting with the technique,and he was the first to give or show us devices like the jump cuts and all, employed them.So, usually jump cut as a popularized is associated with Jean Godard, but he was not the firstto use or think about the possibilities, it is just that he is the most popular person,most well-known director to be associated with this technique.And one reason Godard gives us that, he was not being extremely radical in as the film maker but his filmÀ bout de souffle or Breathless, otherwise known to in English to us is; as a finishedproduct, it was a long movie, he wanted to edit out certain sequences and scenes,so what he choose was to experiment.And he started cutting films, the movie within scene insteadof between scenes, so therefore you have a very jugged very, edgy kind of an editing style.And if you watch Breathless, you will understand what I am talking about.How many of you are familiar with Breathless.Please watch Breathless, 400 blows, I mean they are the basics of film studies.So, jump cut went on to influence all this;actually montage and jump cut, deep focus all these editing techniques, they went on toinfluence the generation of film makers, including Bernardo Bertolucci; does this name ring a bell.Student: The Dreamers?Anything else, more famous?Student: Bicycle thieves?No, no; that is De Sica.Student: Last Tango in Paris.‘Last Tango in Paris’ with Marlon Brando.‘The Last Emperor’ that is another Bertolucci movie.Scorsese often uses montage, zoom and jump cutting.So, any questions here before we proceed?Woody Allen, can you give me some example, why he does that and when he doesStudent: In ‘Deconstructing Harry’ yousee, as we go into the movie; as he, the protagonist gets more psychotic as we see jump cuts and montages.Montages? So, again coming back to our sameidea that it reflects a passage of time, a growth in character.What, ‘Old Boy’, this Korean film is all about?Student: A man is kidnapped and he is lockedin the room for 15 years then he walked suddenly set released,and he wants to find out who locked him and why.So, that is the plot, that is the basic plotof Old Boy; a man is one day just picked up from somewhere and he is locked in a smallroom, and where he is just given the same kind of food every day, all he has the television for company right.So, he is aware of what is happening outside this room, just by watchingonly by watching the television, otherwise he has no access to the real world or outside world.No one talks to him except there is a small opening in the wall of his room fromthis food is given to him, again because the kidnapers who ever has imprison him that personwants him to be alive. And he also ensures that this man, the protagonist; he sleepsand eats in time, he also kept clean. If you watch the movie you will understand how, whatare the things but he spends fifteen years of life in that so called forced kind of exile or imprisonment.And then he decides to free himself, but he does not. The person who hasactually kidnapped him he releases him. He controls the entire proceedings.So, it also deeply philosophical film, also as we have been talking about growth of a hero; you knowthe rights of passage, the bildungsroman, all those elements are implicit in Old Boy.Therefore, the title itself is also called symbolic Old Boy.So, there is a journey, there is a questWhat is the quest for?What is the quest for? There is a plot, but in a movie what is the quest for?Revenge?He seeks revenge against someone he does noteven know, why he was in prison in the first place; there is a quest for revenge and thereis also quest for truth why was he imprisoned at all.So, there is a point in the moviewhere he comes face to face with the person who kidnapped him, but he does not kill him.The so called villain, he says fine go ahead you can kill me if you want, he puts the gunon his head and he said it does not matter to me even if you kill me; but then all yourfifteen years gone down the drain, you will never know why I did, what I did to you.So, it is no just revenge it is also a quest for truth. There is a journey happening there,a very deep, very philosophical, one of the greatest movies of contemporary cinema.Is there is montage?And is split-screen. Split-screen is very obvious. What role does montage play here?Student: Passage of timePassage of time.And the how does the filmmaker denotes this passage of time?Events, major events, world events, international events of significance.Some of the area, you watch princes Diana getting married prince Charles, all these things happeningwithin a certain period of time. You see the world cup football, the Korean crisis, anything else;the world trade center, so all these major events and this is the way he keeps track of time.Any other comments you would like to make about Montage?Do you remember any montage, any significant example from our scene, from our Indian examples?Student: Songs in Tamil movies like,.Songs in Tamil movies, Tamil movie cinema.Student: Like, before the starting of the song, a hero will be like very poor by theend he will be like very rich; it is like a montage.Can you be a more specific which movie; I would like to watch this film.Student: Tamizh Padam, Tamil Padam. That is a spook, because it is a spook theywill resort to this, but otherwise in a in a movie that takes itself seriously; and whathappens in Padaiyappa, be more specific.Student: Vetri kodi kattu song, in one songthey show the entire his development from,His journey from racks to riches. So, is there an ideology?Well if there is, it is not very explicitly stated here; but montage did astart by way of an ideology that is it. Today it is used for a variety of purposes here.So, as we have in Old Boy, reveals of a philosophy, reveals a passage of time but nothing more than that.Please pay attention to the fact that various editing devices, it could becontinuity or linear editing montage or even jump cut, what do they do? They generate layersof meanings, de-center the concept of fixed meaning and leave it to the spectator to make up his or her mind.All right then, thank you very much and we continue tomorrow.