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Japanese Cinema and Major Filmmakers

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Good morning. What were we talking about yesterday, counterculture movement in Hollywood.We have already done stardom, and done the case study of James Dean. We have also seen what wasclassic Hollywood, the golden age of Hollywood. Now, we are at a point when we are slowlymoving towards the new Hollywood movement. Now, a new wave Hollywood or more Auteur-basedHollywood cinema; now, before we go to that particular point and since we have alreadydone counterculture, I thought let us take a break from Hollywood and look at some international cinema.So, we have already done as part of this and divert to consider cinemas from various parts of the world.We have already seen French cinema. We have did French new wave, and wehave already done cinemas of Max Ophuls. We also know something about cahier du cinema criticsand Bazin particularly. So, we have done French cinema, German expressionism;we know something about Italian neorealism also.Japanese cinema which has had such astrong influence on several cinemas of the world, especially Hollywood, and we will see how.Today, I thought that we should be looking at Japanese cinema; a brief overview of itshistory and then the key people, and the key movements.We did have something called ‘Japanese new wave’ as well that was in the sixties and in the sense.So, we should not consider just, because we do not know much about our own continent,Asian continent that new wave did not happen here.We did have a particular movement called the Japanese New wave.However, while considering the Japanese cinema in its overview, we are going to look at some ofthe films from the earlier periods, also the silent era;the Golden age, the so-called Golden age of Japanese cinema.After the new wave, we will also look it J-horror; it is such a popular category and the yakuza movies,anyone who is familiar with yakuza movies?What is Wuxia;W u x i a, are you aware of wuxia movies?Wuxia is Chinese.It is all those action, martial arts movies. Yakuza movies are gangster, Japanese gangster film.And we also have Korean cinema, which is so influential, so strong;we did excerpts from Korean cinema, we were talking about montage and we did Old Boy, remember?So, the key people now: one is going to be a Kenji Mizoguchi who was also known as theShakespeare of Japanese cinema. Ozu, Akira Kurosawa and Ozu, they belong to the goldenage of Japanese cinema. Nagisha Oshima, are you aware of his films?Are you aware of a movie called ‘In the Realm of the Senses’?Note down the name, note down the title,these are very important films and you should be aware of this category also, Nagisha Oshima.And then we had some one very, very influential filmmaker, if you look him up you will findany number of works on him; Takeshi Kitano, he is also known as ‘Beat’.You can imagine how cool he must be.And then we have Takeshi Miike who has made the popular series of ‘Ichi the Killer’,I do not know how many of you follow these films but very influential and very popular.Meiji period, I am taking you back to the earlier cinema.And, what is a Meiji period? Emperor Meiji in Japan; his dates are 1868 to 1912.And this was a period when Japan came under the influence of western artsand theaters and also visual arts.So, if you look at this particular painting, just take a minute, look at this painting.It is Japanese, but do not you find echoes from the European art as well?No?In what way?Student: The attire.Their attire, of course, the complete setup; it looks like a very one of those Mone or Renoir paintingsset in the country side and depicting the world of the Elites in Japan.And look the way they are dressed up; it is very modern, very western.Now, taking you back to the silent cinema, early Japanese film audiences, they were because they werethe generation, which was the direct descendent of the Meiji period.So, they were familiar with western art and theater, so do not think that Japan is a very insular island and theyare not aware of; unfortunately, we are not aware much of these countries – Japan.China of course, we know Ang Lee. Ang Lee has made it so big, John Woo; we will be talking about John Woo,he made ‘Mission Impossible’ do not forget that. So, we know John Woo,we know Ang Lee, we also know Zhang Yimou, the director of Hero. But, Japan needs tobe understood in a much better way.So, early Japanese silences were intentionally vague; as all thinks Japanese, they were vague.They were never over the top; however, there was one particular characteristics of Japanese cinema,of silent movies, the narrator called Benshi.He was not just a narrator; he would not just tell the story but,he would also add his own touches to the story.So, we talk about folk theatre in our country, we talk about telling a story; the oral tradition.So, Benshi belong to that tradition, where he would add his own personal, he would oftenmake up the story. So, it was not necessarily what was going on on the screen, but he wouldalso bring in his own elements to the story. So, that is the major feature of the silent cinema.And the Japanese were always extremely interested in cinema; they would throng to the theaters.And it is important to notice that they were not just interested in seeing,watching the screen, but they also wanted, people to tell you what is happening.So, therefore Benshi is important. This never happened anywhere else; not in Hollywood.Chaplin's cinema, silent movie; they would.‘Arrival of the train at the station’, remember all those movies, silent cinemas?No one would tell them what is happening.But, here they were expected to be told what is happening.So, they were always extremely interested in cinema.Now, when cinema went talkies in Japan,we had Kenji Mizoguchi, often referred to as Shakespeare of Japanese films.‘The Story of the Late Chrysanthemums’ is often regarded as his best work; although he has like allearly grades, he went unnoticed for a very long period till Kurosawa brought attention to Japanese cinema.And that happened only in the 50's. But Mizoguchi made his films during the 30's and 40's.And his another great movie is ‘Tales of Ugetso’.He got some attention from the international critics, because it was already the 50's.And, in this film he combines real with the super naturalto explore issues of love, honor, guilt, responsibility, family.And this movie because of its innovative aspects is often compared to with Citizen Kane.So, Ugetso is also known as Citizen Kane of Japan.Ozu is of course at the center, as important as Kurosawa. So Ozu, if you remember weretalking about Paul Schrader, who was written book on Dreyer, Ozu and Bresson; so this is that Ozu.And his films basically he is known for his gentle home dramas, so families dramas,but very gentle, never melodramatic, never over the top that is his beauty; very gentle,very sensitive movies, not that mushy sentimentality for Ozu. So, Ozu’s films are known forattention paid to the everyday cares of domestic life. And I will show you certain stills from Ozu’s filmsand you will understand what I mean. So, some of the recurring motives in his works are;trains, empty streets,washing on a clothes line and telegraph wires.And what to these images convey?Everyday life;nothing is spectacular. It is not like he is showing you enormouscastles or mansions, and he is not going over the top; he is no Cecil Demille, he is just.So, he is known for his home dramas. A standard theme in his films is the breakdownof the family structure in Japan as a consequence of modernization and urbanization and alsothe change in gender roles; what happens when women start going out to work, and then whatare the repercussions of this change? He is often well-known for his pillow shots.I will tell you what are pillow shots? And his evocative images remain separate from his scenes.So, images are extremely important. He is a poet, he is basically a poet; and the poetic imageryon his screen is more important than individual scenes. He is often known for poetic restraint,as I was just talking about, never goes over the top, never over the top melodramatic.Now, we will come to a term called low angle shot and high angle shot.High angle shot is something, shot from the top. A low angle shot is, shot from below.In our popular cinema,what does low angle shot denote,When you place the camera below?The person, the actor seems taller, larger than life.We often use this to mark our heroes, especially the hero’s entry.So, we see the shoes in the low angle shots. Some of you smiling, so you know whatI mean and why do we do that; they are larger than live characters.So, make them appearextremely significant and important. This is not the case in Ozu.He uses low angle shot to denote something else? But, what does he do? How does he do this?He would often place his static camera; his camera, we were talking about handheldcamera and moving camera, and all that panning camera, he does not resort to those techniques at all.What he does is, uses a static camera and places it a few inches above the floor,giving the audience an impression that they are sitting on the tatami mat; you know Japanese mats,they are all called tatamis. So, as if we are sitting on mats, is the same eye line matching,we see as if we are also on the floor. In movies, if you watch them verycarefully you will find often filmmakers do not show, do not expose the ceilings and the floor.They are taken for granted that they are there.What happens when filmmakers start showing ceilings or floor?Citizen Kane was one of the first movies to expose ceilings.Sidney Lumet does it in Dog day afternoon; the entire movie is shot with ceilings exposed.You know Dog day afternoon; the heist movie with Al Pacino in Brooklyn.It gives an impression of claustrophobia; closenesswhen the ceiling, the room, the spaces are closing in on you, that is the impression it gives.Now, Tokyo story is Ozu’s most popular and most well-known movie.You must watch Tokyo story, I recommend that you watch it.It is one of the most simply constructed,but also one of the forcefully told story of breakdown of family relationship.The story is that there is on old couple and they make a journey to Tokyo,to visit their children and grand children. But then, what happens, as it oftenhappens in most nuclear families, the daughter-in-law and the son, they do not have enough time.Children go to school; daughter-in-law goes out for work and so does the son.And, what does the old couple do? They just stay back. They have come here to interact with theirchildren and their grandchildren, but it does not happen and they go back home.So now, shortly after the old couple returns home to their small town life, the motherdies and then the children take a journey because they have to participate in the lastrituals of the dead mother. So, this is the still from Tokyo story; the old couple andthen when the daughter-in-law joins the father-in-law. In Ozu, we were talking about wires, factories;so an urbanization and modernization. He would not tell you, he will just show you; we weretalking about showing directors, telling directors. He does not over the top with his background musicalmost like Bresson; as austere, as acetic as Bresson and Dreyer, a window shot.Ozu’s other well-known works include; Floating Weeds, The Flavor of Green Tea over Rice,and Late Autumn.And, this is very poignant to hear that his own gravestone; it bearsjust a character, the Japanese character which means nothingness, life is nothingness.So, think of the existential philosophy in Ozu and that is very much implicit in his works.Since most of you are not aware of Japanese cinemas especially of that period,so, no point in asking you questions, but do go and follow up with these films; especially‘Tales of Ugetso’ by Mizoguchi and ‘Tokyo story’ by Ozu. Sidharth, you must be aware of J-horror;before you arrived, we were just talking about J-horror; are you?Student: Is it about this like horror movies like this Japanese?J-horror is Japanese horror. Student: The examples like, the Ring, Ring two movies.The Ring’ is the good example.I am sure you have heard of The Ring. In Japanese, it was called the Ringu.So, now the most well-known, most popular director from Japan, at least I am sure youare aware of Kurosawa (1910 – 1988), influenced the generation of filmmakers.Any number of, his films have been adapted and reworked in several Hollywood films also.So, one of the most respected filmmakers in Hollywood, and as it happens; in his home country,he attracted a lot of jealousy because he was the one of the most, it always happens, it is human nature.Because, he was one of the first; not just one of the first but he wasthe first to garner that kind of the attention and that kind of reception from the western world.And, that people at home were extremely dismissive of him; they never gave him his due back home in Japan.But, Kurosawa as we all know is the master.So, the first Japanese filmmaker to gain international recognition;he is known for a very long and distinguished career, he made films till 19’s.I am sure you are aware of a movie called Dreams,and he acted alongside Martin Scorsese as well, we will talk about that.So, Kurosawa was familiar with western literature and arts, and was deeply interested in painting.So, if you watch his movies like Ran; are you aware of Ran? Yes, it is painterly;every shot is like a painting, you have to watch it to believe it. Yes, his first film wasSugata Sanshiro, and who did he work with, the famous actor?Student: Toshiro Mifune Good. Toshiro Mifune, we will talk about him,then ‘The Quiet Duel’, ‘Stray Dog’, ‘the Drunken Angel’, all these movies of the 40's.He also employed and experimented techniques of the Soviet montage and followedthe classical Hollywood narrative; you are no strangers to classical Hollywood narrative now.So, Kurosawa is recognized as the master technician and the stylist; and reflects adeep sense of humanity for his characters. Now, he awakened the west and we are talkingabout his most popular film now; Rashomon, which won the top prize in the Venice filmfestival of 1951 and also a special Oscar for the best foreign film.So, that is Toshiro Mifune.And they together, they worked on several films; it was like one of those De Niro andMartinus Scorsese relationship, actor-director, and Jean-Pierre Leaud and Truffaut, they always acted together.If you remember Jean-Pierre Leaud, the child actor from 400 Blows; andthen, he went on to act in several other films with Truffaut. Remember? I am sure that youare, shoot the Piano Player, etcetera when he was a grown up kid. And he had a nervesbreakdown when Truffaut died of brain hemorrhage at a very young age.Truffaut was just in his early 50's, 52 or 54.And the actor he had been working on all those movies; he had a nerves breakdown.We are often told that when Martin Scorsese was going through thedrug period of his; remember, he fell into this substance abuse period and he would notable to make any more films. And, De Niro would often go and throw his scripts on himand come back to work, that is the only way you can get Scorsese out of that period.And Scorsese, believe it or not, before Raging Bull was so ill that the doctors told himthat you have now just a few months to live; and De Niro sort of you know when he gavehim the script of Raging Bull brought him back from near death. So, that is the kindof relationships and collaborations you use to have, and therefore these kinds of films.So, Rashomon; I am sure most of you are at least aware of it. If you have not watched it,please do watch it; and it really opens new horizons for you because, see it was oneof the first movies to explore the concept of multiple perspectives.Today, every second movie has multiple perspectives, multiple, parallel stories running; you have bible,you have all these inarrative movies and all.Student: There is Tamil movie in 1952 called Parasakthi;it also deals with the same thing, you know multiple narrations. And, some ofthem, I think in Tamil they say Preceded Rashomon?Exactly, it stars Shivaji Ganesan and the screenplay was written by Anna Durai.And, it has the same kind of narration; the guy gets killed and three different people saying three different ways.It just set in contemporary times.Virumandi does it again, so that is another popular movie.So, thank you for bringing that to my attention. So, those of you whoare not familiar with Rashomon’s plot; it is an anecdote presented four times,there is a nobleman travelling through the thick forest with his beautiful wife.They are attacked by a bandit played by Toshiro Mifune. The wife is raped and the nobleman indulges ina dual with the bandit and the man is killed, husband is killed as well.This episode is narrated through the perspectives of the wife; the bandit witness, a silent witness,the wood cutter who has been watching the entire event, while he was hiding in the woods.And then the spirit of the dead man; he finds a medium; and through that particular medium,he narrates his version of the story.Rashomon is based on two stories by Ryunosuke Akutagawa:Rashomon and In a Grove. So, there are two short stories: Rashomon and In a Grove.So, Kurosawa uses the description of the ruined gate and the atmosphere of the alienationand desolation from the Rashomon story. And various testimonies, multiple perspectivesbefore the police in a rape case from In a Grove. So, he combines, collapses two storiesand makes them into one masterpiece. Toshiro Mifune from ‘Rashomon’, the wife telling her perspective.And now, the word has become so popular that, it has come to become a part of our popularlexicon; the Rashomon effect, that means there is no singletruth,there is no point in theso called quest for truth, going for a quest for truth, there are no grand narratives.But, there are several multiple tales, stories that is the idea.So, there is no truth but everything depends on perception.And, this idea has been reworked and revised in several movies particularly;‘Courage Under Fire’, it is a hollywood movie1996,‘Hero’ Chinese movie by Zhang Yimou, 2002,‘Vantage Point’ we all know that movie 2008, and ‘Virumandi’ of course.Rashomon was made in Hollywood by Martin Ritt as ‘The Outrage’ in 1964.Kurosawa was also inspired by the westerns; remember wewere talking about how interested Kurosawa has always been in western arts and culture and theater.And, he was influenced and inspired by John Fords, westerns and particularlySeven Samurai that is his movie; Kurosawa’s movie is a departure from the typical Jidaigeki.Jidaigeki are those samurai movies of Japan. So, he was more influenced by John Ford andwanted to venture away from the typical samurai movies which were traditionally made in Japan.So, the Seven Samurai is packed with magnificent action, great acting, comedy and adventures.Please do watch it. It was reworked and remade in Hollywood, as?Student: A magnificent seven.The Magnificent Seven, Good.So, Seven Samurai again, the plot; and I will ask you, if you know any popular movie from our own culturethat has been influenced by this plot. A poor village is harassed by a group of bandits,who regularly attack, rape, kill and vandalize. The villagers ask a Ronin, you know what is Ronin?Masterless samurai; wandering from place to place in search of food and shelter,this Ronin character is played by Takashi Shimura. He is an honorable man, and the villagersask him to save them in exchange for a meager portion of rice. The ronin is moved by theircondition and recruits a team of fighters to combat the evil elements. Which movie?Student: Sholay.So, remember, Sholay is not one movie but several movies.Particularly, ‘Once upon a time in the west’, Sergio Leone. how?See here the villagers attacked by bandits. So, the villages employ a wandering Ronin;there you have Jai and Veeru characters and they are hired by the villagers,they are offered a little amount of money that is okay and they are drifters, they have nothing else to do.So, they take it up as another adventure that they can indulge and take the money and leave that is the plot.Then, they get sort of attached to the villagers, their way oflife and decide to stay back, fight back for honor, for love that is one part of the plot.But then Sholay also has another plot; subplot of Thakur Baldev Singh. And, what is he after?There is personal revenge there, personal vendetta. His family has been gun down very ruthlessly by this bandit.So, now, what? This is the total lift from once upon a time in the west, yesbecause that is our popular culture; we need to have more emotional connect with the story.The villagers are being looted and robbed and raped; fine that is one thing,but then for the human connection, we also need a story of Thakur Baldev Singh,otherwise the plot would not hold.Otherwise, it will just become one of those action adventure movies.What make Sholay is because it has several things, several movies, remember;Umberto Eco saying ‘Casablanca’ is several films.And of course attention to detail; every character is meticulously given different shades and traits.So, all seven samurai; each samurai has a different trait and a different skill.Rajkumar Santoshi had made an honorable flop called ‘China Gate’.Are you aware of China Gate?Not Chinatown; Chinatown is another movie by Polanski. China Gate,Urmila Matondkar doing ‘Chamma Chamma’,you remember the song? That is from China Gate, Rajkumar Santoshi’s.It is 98 or 99; it is an adaptation, it is a reworking of Seven Samurai.So, in the end what happens in Seven Samurai? The bandits are vanquished, villagers are finally free.However, three of the warriors are dead out of seven. And as the villagers celebrate theirharvest ritual, the remaining fighters survey the graves of their friends; so ends very poignantly.Yojimbo; thoroughly entertaining, 1961,again it is about a wondering samurai played by Toshiro Mifune. He goes from place to placeearning his living with his sword skills and comes to this particular village, where thereare two business clans, both fighting each other. And what happens later is that,after all he is a mercenary; so he places the two gangs against each other.We have already watched several classic westerns likeShane George Stevens’ and ‘High Noon’ by Fred Zinnemanns’.So, this is homage to those films.A clipping, a still from Yojimbo.How did Kurosawa influence international filmmaking? Seven Samurai was made into Magnificent Sevenand lone samurai character as in Yojimbo that has become a very popular character.So, you have Clint Eastwood in ‘Dirty Harry’ and also in ‘A Fistful of Dollars’,bring the same or reprising the same role. Bruce Willis in ‘Last Man Standing’,are you aware of the movie ‘Last Man Standing’? Please do watch it.So, Yojimbo reworked in Bruce Willis’s Last Man Standing;same story set in a different period, 1930s America; America of the prohibition era.Kurosawa is also known for his Shakespearean adaptationand he has reworked Macbeth and King Lear into Throne of Blood and Ran respectively,again with his favorite actor Toshiro Mifune.And as we were already talking about, he was never considered Japanese enough;he was considered too western for the Japanese audience.So, in spite of all his international recognition, he was never really considered as one of them.((Refer Prof)) in Kurosawa; you are aware of I believe what is no theater known for his minimalism,it is closed and artificial and is especially in Throne of Blood, it is referred to throughout the film.So, you can look up on the ((Refer Prof)) and understand how it influences Kurosawa’sworks especially in ‘Throne of Blood’. Kurosawa remained active till the end of his life.In ‘Dreams’ it is a series of vignette. He made Martin Scorsese act as one go;Martin Scorsese another follower of Kurosawa in the Groves episode. And, he continued his collaborationwith Toshiro Mifune’s son when he cast Shiro Mifune in his last film ‘After the Rain’, 1998that is the year of his death.So, coming to Japanese new wave; what was Japanese new wave?We already know French new wave, you know Italian neorealism andwe have been talking about Hollywood new wave. So, there was something called Japanese new wave,a very self conscious movement.And, this is the closest they come to so-called the Japanese modernism.And at the center, you have Nagisa Oshima who made ‘Cruel story of youth’.Nagisa Oshima is also a famous for his ‘In the Realm of Senses’,one of the most erotic films of its times. And Yoshishige’s ‘Eros + Massacre’;those are the films of the Japanese new wave movement,immensely popular and very well-received internationally.Seventies onwards, Japanese cinema saw a proliferation of anime, highly stylized animated cartoonsand the most popular names Miyazaki’s ‘Princess Mononoke’ and ‘Spirited Away’,some of the best known works of this category.Have you watched ‘Spirited Away’?Anime grew out of Manga comics, which rely on whimsical drawings; those round faces, extra large eyesand an extra small mouth. So, those Manga comics’ drawings, combine great visual beautywith fairy tale like narratives with great philosophy, all these tales are of philosophical depth.Perfect Blue and Millennium Actress, they are also very well-known Animes.‘Tokyo Godfathers’, 2003 and ‘Paprika’ in 2006; all these films by Satoshi Kon, so Anime as a category.J-horror, Japanese horror; this is Japan’s contribution to world cinema.Why do not we have I-horror, Indian horror?Do we have horrors except Ramgopal Verma’s horrors, what he makes?Student: Recently coming in Hindi cinemas. What movies?Student: Horror movies like Raaz, 1920. You know, 1920 and Raaz, they are also reworking;they are not terribly original works. I mean Raaz as far as I can remember is a reworkingof ‘What Lies Beneath’, Michelle Pfeiffer and Harrison Ford if you remember, it is a 2000 movieexcept that super natural. But, ‘What Lies Beneath’ also has super natural element in it,but why do not we have Italian horror or I-horror or anything else?Why do not we have US-horror? But, J-horror is a unique category of its own; it is Japan’s greatestcontribution to world cinema especially in re-contemporary times, extremely violent andbuilds up a mood of a mounting dread and suspense, nothing scares you as a standard as J-horror.Famous names, most well-known directors of this genre; Hideo Nakata, who made the Ringor in Japanese it is called the Ringu. And Takashi Miike’s ‘Audition’ and ‘One Missed Call’;and that also have been remade in Hollywood, ‘One Missed Call’.Takashi Miike’s blood drenched, extremely gory series of films. ‘Ichi the Killer’;it is a Yakuza, gangsters genre, adapted from Yamamoto’s cult Manga ‘Homunculus’.How many of you have watched ‘Ichi the Killer?I am surprised, I was just under the assumptionthat in this class, people may not know Kurosawa and of course, they would not know Mizoguchiwho is Shakespeare, poor fellow of Japanese cinema, but everyone would be familiar with ‘Ichi the Killer’.Do watch excerpts on the youtube at least.Fukasaku; master of B-movies. What are B-movies?In one of my earlier classes, film studies;one of our M.A. boy did an excellent presentation on B-movies, and he made a comparative studyof Bollywood and Tamil cinema, B-movies. So, what are B-movies? You have list A-movies; you have B-movies.A-movies usually star; A-grade, A-list actors, A-list technicians, A-list directors.B-movies usually are cultish; they will be there. There was a spate of moviesstarring Mithun Chakraborty, and they had their own fan following. All the standardrituals are there, all the strops are there; an item song, a martial art scene,something that would appeal to a particular section of society.All the leading critics will nevergive it 5 star ratings, those kinds of movie. They will give it perhaps poor rating or 0 rating,those kinds of movies, enormous fan following. So, Fukasaku, a master of B-movies.Japanese Yukuza, gangster movies. Now, since you have attended this course,remember Wuxia is Chinese martial arts films. All those wire action movies; Matrix,Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, Heroes, so that is Wuxia, and Yukuza, Japanese gangster.So he has made movies like, Battle Royale part 1 and part 2. And, Tarantino dedicates Kill BillVolume 1 to Fukasaku’s memory; it is there, it appears the beginning.Beat, Takeshi Kitano; beat is his nick name, because he is the ultimate and cool.So, he is an actor, screenwriter and director. One of his most famous films; Violent Cop, 1989.So, Beat Takeshi often feted and celebrated at Cannes film festival. He has enormous fanfollowing among the western audience. He is not just another B-maker of violent gangster films,but he is also celebrated for his aesthetics. So, known for violent gangster films, has a cult following.But, now also he is very-well received. His most famous films; Violent Cop,Sonatine in 1993, Hana-bi in 97 and Zatoichi in 2003. And, films are extremely moody;very atmospheric; swing between humor to graphic violence and melancholic introspection,so there is a philosophy. But, there is plenty of violence but almost always done very aesthetically.Violence is often played out in Kitano as a kind of ritual. And, ritualistic themes,the ritualistic violence often brings you to one conclusion, one theme; that there isalways a conflict between duty and personal feelings. So, that is the main theme in Kitano’s films.Kitano’s brother (2000).And Takeshi Miike’s Ichi the Killer;look at the still for a moment, look at the scars on his face,almost like your Heath Ledger from The Dark Knight;yes, a shock of blonde hair.What do we witness for the past 20 years or so? We in Japanese cinema, there has beena nostalgia for the Golden age; Golden age as symbolized by Ozu and Kurosawa.So, now,v we have Muddy River (1981) movie, which was shot in black and whitealmost like homage to Ozu’s films.