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German Expressionism and Film Noir

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Good morning, so film noir is our topic for the day. Noir literally means the dark;film noir literally mean the dark films. Noir as you all know means the color black.The term was coined by French film critics in 1946, to refer to a particular type of American film.So, remember this is very important to note that noir as the topic, noir as themovement was coined by the French film critics who we often refer to in this course;the people from cahier du cinema especially Godard, Truffaut and Andre Bazin; they coined thisterm to refer to a particular kind of American cinema. Film noir arouse from the collisionof German expressionism; we have been talking about on and off German expressionism in this course.So this is important to understand that this was a combination of German expressionistic cinema,horror cinema, realism and as well as paralleling the emergences of the city as the character;in all film noir, city emerges as the very powerful character, it is an important entity by its own, on its own.The first two film noir is probably Fritz Lang’s M, which was released in 1931 staring Peter Lorre.So Fritz Lang, talking about the great filmmaker;he was of German origin, fled Germany in 1933 from the Nazi regime; we have beenfrequently talking about these filmmakers, Billy wilder for instance the other we were referring to him,so similarly Fritz Lang fled Germany 1933, and directed a series of Anti- Nazi films in Hollywood.One was Man Hunt in 1941, Hangmen Also Die in 1943, and Ministry of Fear in 1944.Fritz Lang was blacklisted in Hollywood because of his supposed communist collaboration.And the films he made in Hollywood, the noir he made in Hollywood go as; The Big Heat (1953),some of you may recall, Lee Marvin is the important negative character in The Big Heat.The Blue Gardenia, Human Desire in 1954. And then he returned to Germany andlater appeared as himself, later appeared as Fritz Lang, the director in Godard’s Contempt in 1963.Let us talk about the film noir in America.So, film noir first involved in 1940’s and became prominent in the post-war era, andlasted in a classic ‘Golden age’ period until about 1960’s. We were been talkingabout the classic golden age period of Hollywood cinema for quite a while. So noir was an importantpart of golden age periods. Classic film noir developed during and after the Second World War,taking advantage of the post-war ambience of anxiety, pessimism and suspicion, and possiblyreflecting male fears of female liberation and independence during the war years.So, this is important to understand that after the Second World War, America was undergoingcertain socio-cultural changes; the equation between the two genders was also undergoing rapid changes.And it was atmosphere of anxiety and suspicion, and perhaps the climate wasjust right for this kind of cinema. The noir was characterized for the by a downbeatatmosphere and graphic violence; think the scene Lee Marvin’s throws burning coffee,hot coffee on Debby Marsh’s face and blinds in the eye in the Big Heat, so graphic violence;throughout the movie, so throughout the movie we see her with the burnt face, the beautifulgirl completely you know is scared; and so this kind of graphic violence was contributionof this category of cinema called ‘film noir’. And noir of course carried a postwar American pessimism to the point of Nihilism by assuming the absolute corruption of society.So who could be trusted that is the question noir would often raise.So coming to the standard plot in noir; a film noir was often developed around a cynicalhard-boiled, hard-hearted disillusioned male character, and most frequently this charactercould be played by Robert Mitchum, Fred MacMurray, and even Humphrey Bogart, who encounteredbeautiful but promiscuous, amoral, double-dealing and seductive femme fatale.So, femme fatale is another important character of noir. Femme fatale as we all know, literally means womanwho is a killer and in other words the deadly woman.So these are the characters we have been talking about; femme fatale, hard-boiled hero oftena detective, and noir would often derive their plots from pulp fiction and we will soon talk about that also.Noir is primarily psychological, favoring atmosphere over action.So we find that noir is extremely atmospheric; plot is important of course but it also the atmospherethat rain-drenched streets, the night shots, atmosphere of dread anxiety and paranoia thoseare all very important features. We were talking about the influence of German expressionism on noir.And German expressionism with its insistence on chiaroscuro lighting, you knowinterplay of light and darkness, distorted camera angles and symbolic set designs wasthe single most important influences on noir that is very important to understand.And key movies in this regard, The Cabinet of Dr Caligari (1919), and Nosferatu.So, these films we are going to talk about.And we have to understand that noir was a product of German expressionism.I just refer to noir, and its indebtedness to literature especially pulp fiction.So, Dashiell Hammett, he was one of the most important writers of that period.And if you remember, we have, we have often been talking aboutArthur Miller, Elia Kazan, Dashiell Hammett with reference to their involvement in HUAC committee.Dashiell Hammett was indebted by the US government during that period of hoveringanti US tendency; it was of course not true but that was an age or atmosphere of paranoiaand dread and everyone was suspect. So Dashiell Hammett, who was also a longtime associateof the great dramatist Lillian Hellman, created a character Sam Spade. And The Maltese Falconis his great novel which was adopted for a movie, starring Humphrey Bogart in 1941.So, that is the origin of a classic noir, The Maltese Falcon. Then Raymond Chandler, whocreated the character of Philip Marlowe; again played by Humphrey Bogart in ‘The Big Sleep’directed by Howard Hawks, and ‘The Lady in the Lake’ which was a 1947 work.James M. Cain, we have often been referring to his ‘Mildred Pierce’ which is a noirin parts but his classic noir include, ‘Double Indemnity’ and also ‘The Postman Always Rings Twice’.And ‘Double Indemnity’ you should know, that Chandler who wrote thescreenplay along with Billy Wilder, was the director; we were just referring to Billy Wilderthe other day, one of the important key directors of the Golden age.Cornell Woolrich, who wrote ‘The Bride Wore Black’, was adapted into a film by François Truffaut,so that tells us about how far reaching was the influence of noir on filmmakers.More than a genre, noir is a style, it is a movement but more importantly it is a style,an important visual style. And style of cinematography emphasizes the impression of night-time photography,high-contrast lighting, occasional low-key lighting to show and encroaching metaphysical darkness,deep shadows lurking around the corner, oblique angles. So the tilted camera to show a worldit is completely out of genre in distorted images. So those are the visual stylistic elements of noir.Noir often features interplay of shadow and light, chiaroscuro we were talking about, stylized narrative.Often use of voice-over-narration;think ‘Sunset Boulevard’, other we were talking about Billy Wilder as a great American filmmakers,and his ‘Sunset Boulevard’ begins with a famous shot of dead body;William Holden’s dead body lying in a swimming pool, and an entire story told in a voice over narrationand it is William Holden’s voice. Noir also is a study of a psychology of the male protagonist.Presence of femme fatale; very very important, very key feature. And all-pervading senseof pessimism, anxiety, and failure.Billy Wilder’s ‘Double Indemnity’, starringFred MacMurray, and Barbara Stanwyck; it is important movie (1944), also starring EdwardG. Robinson which was the classic and extremely successful movie.Noir themes; often focus on the hunted past of the protagonist; so noir protagonists arealways escaping some pass burden or a traumatic-incident.There is a theme of hideout; seeking concealment in dimly lit rooms and dark alleys.The bottom line is; one cannot escape one’s past, no matter how much they try.Also life is a fatalistic nightmare; there is no escape, no exit.So, this is the basic underlying philosophy of noir.As we were talking about, let’s revise the Archetype Characters in noir;so The Truth Seeker, often the detective, officer of the law (hard-boiled), so he is the truth seeker.Think, Sam Spade’s character in Maltese Falcon and you will understand that the herois the hard-boiled detective, he is also an officer of the law, and he is the truth seeker.The hunted; an outsider, possibly also the hero but often the misfit, the outsider.Corrupt cope; think Orson Welles’ character in ‘Touch of evil’. So, noir often banged on in allpervading sense of corruption and pessimism; and who better than corrupt cope representativeof law and order going. Femme fatale of course, we are all familiar with the idea Femme fatale;the deadly woman, seductive, mysterious, always in control; think Lana Turner‘The postman always rings twice’, think Barbara Stanwyck in ‘Double indemnity’.Marilyn Monroe in Niagra is one her prime example of Femme fatale, although Marilyn was always knownas a great comic-actor,she has also acted in a movie like Niagra which capitalizes on her appeal as femme fatale.‘The Big Sleep’ of course remains the classic, the mother of all noirs.We were taking about the hero as a truth seeker,and you can think of Jack Nicolson’s Jake Gittes in ‘Chinatown’ where Chinatown,a metaphorical city and it is a seat of corruption, decadence, insane, and many more corrupting things.And Jack Nicolson’s character is the truth-seeker who falls in love with femmefatale as played by Faye Dunaway.We also have the concept of Neo- Noir;film noir was such an important category that it could not be swept aside for a very long time,so soon it remerged and we had movies like ‘Usual Suspect’, ‘L.A. Confidential’.And if you think, ‘L.A. Confidential’ you have a corrupt cope, you have hero as the truth-seeker,and you also have a femme fatale as played by Kim Basinger.The setting of noir often urban landscapes, LA, New York, and San Francisco.The city (metropolis) is a location of corruption and decadence; in other words a moral wasteland.And if at all Noir is certain rural landscape, it becomes a sanctuary for the corrupt ora killing ground; that is important to understand that rural landscape soon becomes corruptedwhen an outsider arrives on the scene, and that outsider is invariable from city.So let’s us think ‘The postman always rings twice’, John Garfield, he arrives on thescene, the setting is small town but with his arrival things turn for worst.We were always, already talking about the style; rain-soaked streets, clubs, smoky bars, and think noir,everything is there.Let us talk about Neo-noir. Some of the prime example of Neo- noir;I just spoke about ‘L.A. Confidential’ and ‘Usual Suspect’ butthen you also have great movies like; Fargo, and Blood Simple by Coen Brothers of course.Taxi Driver, Memento, Sin City, U-Turn; think U-Turn, Sean Penn’s, Nick Nolte and Jennifer Lopez,a classical love triangle with a deadly femme fatale. Mulholland Drive, The Lost Highway;it is movie by David Lynch. Insomnia; Christopher Nolan’s, Shutter Island, Inception;in fact Christopher Nolan is another master of Neo-noir. So, think all these films and understand howthey are all characterized, and how they are all marked by anxiety, disillusionment, paranoiaand urban claustrophobia. So while talking about noir, the other day someone asking mewe would be doing one of the great masters of noir and also of classic Hollywood period,Otto Preminger; so yes I thought it is a good moment to talk about cinema of Otto Premingeralso especially in context of film noir. So, Otto Preminger he was often called ‘Otto the terrible’,because of his temper and tantrums. He often came into conflict withDarryl Fox Zanuck, we have already done the classic Hollywood, of 20th century Fox ZanuckSo, Otto Preminger had lot of issues with dealing with the people. And he was one ofthose Auteurs of course; the term auteur did not exist that point but he was an auteurin the true sense of word, especially in the way he would like to have a complete controlover the way things were in the studios; that included taking control over the sound aspect,the cinematography and choosing his own teams of experts and also choosing his own actors,kind of people he would like to work with. So, truly a versatile genius, because thereis no single genre that he specialized in but yes there is the collection of films,specially related to noir and that we are going to talk about.So, Otto Preminger (1905 - 1986). He was Jew, born in Austria, and immigrated to New Yorkwhere he directed plays on broad ways, so that was the way he started his career.His major films includes; ‘River of no return’ with Marilyn Monroe which is a western, MarilynMonroe and Robert Mitchum. He is also known to make one of the first main stream moviesabout drug addiction; ‘The man with the Golden arm’ in 1956 with Frank Sinatra asjunky; so as that something that tells you that he like to deal with unconventional themes and plots.His most famous movie apart from Laura that we are going to discuss today is‘Anatomy of a Murder’, and the movie generated plenty of controversy at that point becauseof its realistic depiction of a rape scene, that was 1959 starring James Stewart.And ‘Exodus’ (1960) is about the founding of the state of Israel.Coming to his noir, classic noir; Laura. Laura was released in 1944. So, this is what weare going to talk about; so today’s key concept is revisiting a classic that is ‘Laura’ by Otto Preminger.We will also talk about neo-noir, define neo noir, and then discussMartin Scorsese’s ‘Taxi Driver’ as neo-noir.So, as we have been talking about noir ismore related to style and atmosphere rather than genre. So, the troubling premises of‘Laura’ is that homicide detective, Mcpherson as played by Dana Andrews; he is seduced bythe aura of a portrait of supposedly murder victim, Laura Hunt as played by Gene Tierney.Now, the premise of the story is that there has been a murder; the detective is on callas played by Dana Andrews, and when he arrives, he meets a very interesting character, interestinglythe first few moments are narrated in a voice over, you know classic noir trope.So that voice belongs to very charismatic person in a movie; he is a sophisticate, he is an esthete,and he is the columnist, and he is the, character played by Clifton Webb who was already 55 years old.And detective Mcpherson seizes him regarding murder of Laura, because weare told that Webb has been very close to Laura Hunt. So, it is like classic Citizen Kane narrativewhere the dead victim whether sorry, the detective visits several peoplewho were close to the dead person, the victim and tries to analyze the character of Laura.So the character of Laura is constructed through the perspectives of several people who have known her.Of course, few years before we had the Citizen Kane following the same narrative trajectory;in Laura however things are quite different, because he is also detective ontrial, he has to find out you know the classic who done it, but also what kind of a personwas Laura that becomes another theme of the movie.As he investigates interviews with many people from in New York society with whom Laura hassurrounded herself. Mcpherson as played by Dana Andrews, he is the classic blue-collared, outsider.Lara comes across as very descent, extremely beautiful and sophisticated, charming and intelligent person.And the detective slowly starts falling in love with a dead person.So, you see another very experimental theme, very innovative idea; Necrophilia,a man falling in love with dead woman. In several ways, Laura anticipates Hitchcock’sVertigo where the conspiracy hinges upon James Stewart’s Scottie falling in love with KimNovak’s Madeleine, and we all know what the story is all about, we have been discussing ‘Vertigo’ several times.This is ensured however just by hiring Scottie if you remember‘Vertigo’ to observe Madeleine, so that he will try to explain and save her and hisinvestigation gradually turns into an obsession. And when he first comes across the news ofher supposed suicide, Madeleine suicide, we know what happens to Scottie, so he becameobsessed with Kim Novak’ character.Now, noir by Preminger; so Preminger followed Laura with fallen angle,world pool where the sidewalk ends, and an angle face all of which are regarded as noir classics.We have been talking about the gaze in Hitchcock,that Hitchcock was fascinated by supposed gaze of a characters, so this idea is alsofound in Otto Preminger’s films, especially in Laura, where the detective is attractedby Gene Tierney even when as it seems in the earlier situation or in a, she is dead, shehas been just shot dead by someone her own person. But as he gradually falls in lovewith her, so there is always we find moments where he fixes his gaze on her stunning portrait,and he becomes so obsessed with dead woman that, he even plans to buy the portrait whenthe estate decides to auction of her belongings.So, I will just read you out some excerpts on Laura before we move on to Neo-noir.So, this is a book called ‘Film noir’ by Jennifer Fay and Justuce Nieland, please can you focus on this?And I am going to read excerpts on Laura, it is a commentary on Lydecker as we weretalking about Clifton Webb’s character. So this is what the writers says,‘The parallels between the enthralling Laura Hunt as played by Gene Tierney and Lydecker, Clifton Webb,the quire hard critics in Otto Preminger’s Laura, we are first introduced to Lydeckerthrough his positions and disembodied voice over narration. The camera is smoothly treksthrough his lavish apartment, reveling shimmering glass collectibles and hornet free standingclocks, a sparkling chandeliers and exotic mass on the wall. Finally, the camera restsnot a Lydecker, but on our detective hero, McPherson whose is waiting to interview him about a murder.McPherson sneers at this refinery, feeling himself out of place and perhaps outclass but the sneer returns to McPherson’s face and finally, he sees Lydecker in theflesh or shall we specify in the nude for Lydecker is bathing in his equally ornatebathroom during their first exchange. As the two men discuss the murder scene,Lydecker towels off and dresses with meticulous attention to his silk pocket square and fragrant utenair;it is both the objects and the overall fussiness of his toilet process itself that is style Lydecker as queer.As Lydecker explains to McPherson that evening over a candle light dinner,he is the self-proclaimed, self-observed canister of women, of art and of true crime who has moldedLaura into the successful advertising executive she has become, that is until her alleged murder.You see the idea is there is element of queerness or homosexuality in Laura,and of course we are talking about the times of hays code, the production code;and such thing could not be articulated, could not be vocalized but it is all there, andClifton Webb’s character is decidedly queer’. So this is what Richard Dyer things about it.And the writers say, ‘In keeping the Dyer’s reading, Lydecker does not love Lauraor sexually desire her so much, as he praises her as an object reflecting his good taste.McPherson a working class, un-cultured gumption has little access to this world of high refinery,yet when he becomes intimate with Laura’s equally lavish apartment which bows an exactreplicate of Lydecker’s free standing New Baroque Clock. McPherson becomes romanticallyobsessed with this dead woman. In one scene, he moves around her apartment handling her effects;a silk scarf, a perfume, her cloths and her letters, some written to her by Lydecker.McPherson poses himself for a drink and gazes at the portrait of her, that he plans to buy from the estate.As Lydecker asserts, McPherson has fallen in love with corpse.So that Otto Preminger for you, very unusual, very an orthodox and very bold especially withhis selection and choice of films. Let us go through our list of Neo-noir once more.So, what is Neo-noir? If there was film noir, the classic noir, of course it was setduring the time of classic Hollywood. And if it is Neo-noir, we are basically talkingabout cinema of the New Hollywood period, particularly late 60’s and early 70’s onwards,and they still exists; I mean L.A. Confidential which is the movie of the 1990s, perhaps 97.Yeah, that is classic Neo-noir. It is a take on ’Chinatown’, perhaps 'The Postman Always Rings Twice’.So, it is a noir in that classical tradition.So Neo-noir, we have some classic examples; Taxi Driver, Usual Suspect, Mulholland Drive, Fargo,Blood Simple, Memento, Sin City, U-turn and Insomnia, Collateral, Inception and even Black Swan;what do all these films signify? We have already talked about their anxiety, displacement,disillusionment, dystopia and claustrophobia. Of course, all these things exist in classicnoir as well but neo noir updates those themes of anxiety, displacement, claustrophobia and paranoia.The themes are updated in terms of content,style and visual elements; for example, inclusion of social networking sites or internet orsurvey lens, as we were talking about ‘The Conversation’, Coppola’s ‘The Conversation’,so these elements combines and give a touch of neo-noir. Let us even think of movie likeSin City based on the graphic novel, so stylistically they differ.Modern themes of Neo-noir alsoinclude identity-crises, memory issues and subjectivity, and technological problems.Let us think for example, films like ‘Memento’ and ‘Blade Runner’. Memento deals withas we all know with the theme of memory loss, and Blade Runner; it is a science-fiction,we have already done that when we are talking about, when we were discuss intellectuality.And it is also it also deals with idea of urban claustrophobia and dystopia.Now, talking about ‘Taxi Driver’ (1976) as Neo-noir, directed by Martin Scorsese andScripted by Paul Schrader. Music by Bernard Hermann who was the regular with Hitchcock;and it has Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, Jodie Foster and Cybill Shepherd.Taxi Driver is as they call it, what is the genre; neo-noir and some even call it an ultimate existential cool.So, the themes as you know think existential cool and neo-noir, so what are the themesagain; alienation, fragmented psyche, urban male, and dark arena of psychology.Setting is New York. And it is partially based on Dostoyevsky’s underground man,‘Notes from underground’ ((Refer Prof)) (33:29).If you remember, what are the memorable lines in Taxi Driver;‘are you talking to me’, and it is Scorsese’s homage to George Steven’s ‘Shane’,‘Are you talking to me, well I am the only one here’.At another point Robert De Niro in his voice-over,remember the opening shot, ‘They are all animals anyway, all the animals come out at nightsomeday a real rain will come and wash all this scum off the streets’.Dostoyevsky’s note says, I am seek man and Travis Bickle as played by De Niro in Taxi Driver says;I think, I got stomach cancer.Travis Bickle even the name; travelling and bickering, of course names do matter.And Martin Scorsese calls him somewhere between Charles Melson and Saint Paul. So very ambiguouskind of a character and that is what we have been talking about, noir characters are morally ambivalent.Even the car; it is just not a car or a taxi, it is a metallic coffin ina city full of people, but Travis Bickle is stunningly lonely in a city full of people;so Taxi Driver at many levels is about alienation and loneliness. Although he attempts to benormal, and then you have Cybill Shepherd’s character and he dates her for a while.But then he has distorted ideas of the real world, and he lives in such a wiped world of hisown that he can never find or form a real relationship with normal regular people.If you what the movie, you will notice the utter absent of domestic life of any kind,there is no connection between Travis Bickle and his fellow cabbies.And voice over often tells us that he is infected.So, Scorsese’s New York like Dostoevsky St. Petersburg or Dickens’ London; is an urban nightmare.So, evil is pandemic in New York. And it so happen that New York of 70’s was infestedwith crimes of all kinds, and there was also a strike by the city cleaners during the timewhen ‘Taxi Driver’ was been shot; and the images of rottenness and corruption and garbage,everything is extremely relevant to the movie and they come to the forth. Andthe movie was shot on location, city in fact has not been cleaned and swept for very longtime, and the garbage on the screen is for real.So the movie deals with shadow, masochism,schizophrenia and paranoia; and it is very worthy addition to the long list of Neo-noir.So, we were talking about how noir owes or how noir indebted to German Expressionism;so let us just revise what is expressionism. The expressionism had been the dominant featuresof German arts since 1910, including theater, painting and music. So because of the rejectionof realist modes of representation and its preoccupation with sexuality and emotionaluncertainty, expressionism can be termed as a modernist movement and it is indeed a veryintegral feature of modernism.Screen by Edward Munch’s painting, in fact heralded the age of expressionism in German painting and arts.Coming to theater and visual arts and cinema, Max Reinhardt; we have been talking aboutMax Reinhardt quite often, (1873-1943). He was an Austrian theater and film directorwho rejected the realistic stage and searched for new expressive and emphatic ways of visualscenic and musical representation, which led him directly to experimentation with the wayof mixing the art. He is one person, who is quite often held responsible for initiating expressionism in arts.Now, why did expressionism as a movement as an artistic movement to originated in Germany?We have to remember that after Germany's defeat in the First World War,the artistic form captured the mood of the generation whichwas pessimistic and full of anxiety and dread because Germany has loss land, its peopleand also its pride in the Versailles treaty. So, this set back to the collective confidenceand pride gave way to general feelings of despondency, paranoia and morbidity whichfound expression in its artistic forms as well. So, we just refer to ‘The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari’,Robert Weine directed it in 1919. So, that impact of expressionismas the movement was soon realized in this film Dr. Caligari which is consider as oneof the foremost expression of, expressionism as an aesthetic movement.It is a narrative of the mad doctor who uses a somnambulist,you know someone who sleeps and walks to commit crimes for him.Wiene presents actors in exaggerated makeup and places them distorted sets an angular architecture.So, one of the key features of expressionism is employment of chiaroscurolighting and distorted sets to represent the sense of paranoia and mental instability of the characters.Some of the stylistic features of Dr. Caligariinclude all the features of expressionism, such as chiaroscuro, interplay of lights and shadows,oblique angle, spatial distortion. The general and overall feeling is that danger lurks in the corner;the city is the threatening side and full of morally ambiguous characters.The movie has been blamed for Brain-washing the Germans, resulting in the raise of Nazismwhich is true to an extent because cinema was an important force, still is an important force,so Dr. Caligari often has responsible for raise of Nazism. The other landmark, expressionistfilms of these periods are Nosferatu, The Last Laugh of by Murnau, and Metro Police by Fritz Lang.The major reason for the end of expressionismwas the end of silent films, because the invention of sound paved way for naturalism and realism,we have been talking about that quite frequently. The raise of Nazism in Germany led many talentedfilmmakers to flee the country and working it Hollywood; we have been talking about thatquite frequently as well, for example directors like Fritz Lang, Karl Freund and Billy Wilder,they took expressionism to America, and the result of this transcontinental exudes forthe hybrid of German expressionism, French poetic realism and American pulp film noir.The expressionist style of film noir creates an alienating effect along with realist depiction;it distorts perspective, emphasizes gesture, and articulates a language for the subconscious.The director living himself in exile in Hollywood used expressionismto express their present through their past.The brutality against Jews magnified a sense of living nightmarefor those who participated in the business of escapist world of the Hollywood.That is how noir was imported to Hollywood. A word about Murnau’s ‘Nosferatu’; F.W. Murnauconsidered a master expressionist along with Fritz Lang of course, and G.W. Peck.His films are full of dread and suggest a world between reality and fantasy, there isvery thin line of demarcation between the two. So, the themes of repression and sexualityrecurred which echo something, for you know Murnau’s personal life, something aboutMurnau’s personal life since he was believed to be applause homosexual during the periodof Germany’s Homo-phobic laws. So many scholars, many film scholars are attributed to thisfeeling of dread and paranoia to Murnau’s own repressed feeling. His films are knownfor creating a sense of alternative, parallel kind of a universe. One of the best horror filmNosferatu; a symphony of terror, it is a classic example of German expressionism,with Max Schrech playing Count Orlok, Dracula like character; inspired by Bram Stoker’s Dracula.Murnau renamed the film ‘Nosferatu’ after receiving legal thr