Video 1: The Gothic Settings
Hello and welcome to week seven lectures on a Christmas Carol in today's lecture, I will be talking about the nature of the dark narrative. I'll be discussing the nature of cocktail settings. And I will wrap up by talking about the nature of go sleep children in this novella, Charles Dickens had said, I have end of it in this ghostly little book, the race, the ghost different idea, which had not put my readers out of humor with themselves, with each of them, with the season, all with me.Made haunted houses, pleasantly, and no one wish to lay it. These words by Charles Dickens. And they sum up the nature of this book. They point out the benefits that this book would bring to the lives of the people who read it and employ the message that this book. Uh, advices to his readers. Therefore he says, um, the ghostly nature of this book is something which need not be put down because the ghostly nature is something that's going to bring, uh, uh, munificence um, benefit and, uh, charity to those, uh, who need it. The ones that we saw are. Part of the introduction that they can throw to his novella, a Christmas Carol, which was published in December 18, 1843, the Victorian English author seems to have been concerned that his sweetest might be put off or even the stubbed by such a dark tale in the middle of the Christmas season. It may seem strange to modern readers to think about a Christmas Carol, as a dark story. But this class six story contains all three elements of a typical dark Nardo horror terror, and the God thing. We need to realize that they can so slightly apprehensive about the idea of ghostly visitations, uh, in a book that is written during the time of Christmas, he is slightly, um, apprehensive, anxious about the reception of the book, which is why he wants to, uh, contextualize, um, say something more about the, uh, Function of the goals that he uses in this work. And these goals are good spirits that I'm trying to seek transformation in a central character who is capable of, um, generosity deep down. And therefore the spirits are good spirits, which is why they can say is that we need not be offended by these. Spiritual presences, even during this, uh, festival season. We do not usually associate a Christmas Carol with a darkness with bleakness Bach. Uh, we need to understand that this classic novella contains components, which are traditionally associated with the God thick with the dark. Notter those such as a horror terror. And the cocktails. So there are Gothic drops present in this novel. Um, readers might be horrified by some of the graphic, um, and description of certain terrible things. And there is terror as well, which makes the readers think deeply about, um, the way, uh, life is led in these art times. So let's see, um, how exactly this novella is got that income. The goals except perhaps for the ghost of Christmas past all take on tangible, horrifying appearances at one point or another, the main crude expedience is terrible. His times of waiting for the ghost to appear as for the Gothic, the entire story is written in the style of a Gothic ghost story, Danny. Cavalero author of the Gothic audition three centuries or a terror and fear. Yeah, go so far as to suggest that doc with this novella Dinkins mixed Christmas colors, Tara Munis way darkness. So there are a clear cut suggestions in the tale, which suggest that the narrative belongs to the Gothic mode. Scrooge, when he's waiting for the girls to appear, he has been warmed a wand, his dad, uh, Clark, who himself appears as a ghost and, um, caution SIM doc ghost of Christmas, past present, and future will visit him. And why screw, just waiting for the ghost to appear. He is terrified. And so that, uh, also very strongly anchored. This story, uh, within the cortex, uh, word. Yeah, the crew day. Donny Cavalero. Um, suggest that because of all these, um, associations that guns brought into the culture, through his, uh, work a Christmas Carol, there is a kind of implication that Christmas in itself becomes a deeply associated with the idea of Darkness. Uh, so these are some of the, uh, Subutex, um, and, uh, textual cues that are, uh, made, uh, apparent to us when we read, uh, a Christmas Carol and it's criticisms in the Victorian period. Christmas time often produced many ghost stories, dust infusing, Christmas. Dale's that just Carol and other works by Dickens with Gothic elements. In his introduction to Gothic invest in culture, Gerald E Hoggle defines elements of the genre, all of which appear in Carol, that is a Christmas Carol. For example, the narratives usually take place in old antiquated or ruin dwellings, such as prisons, castles, or graveyards. We need to understand that there is a tradition in the Victorian period. Um, where there is an association between Christmas and Gothic tales. So that, um, tradition is something which, uh, the contemporaries of deacons would be very familiar with general E Huggle in his book. Oh God. Thank God. In Western culture, lose out the set of Gothic, um, attributes. Um, In, in narratives, which are prisons, costings, and graveyards when buildings run down. Um, so setting is crucial and in a Christmas carols case, we do have, uh, uh, ambiance in the settings that are Dickens sketches for us in the novella. I think settings represent an important aspect of the genre because not only does the setting have to maintain this dreary and obsolete or haunting aura, but it must also contain or hide some repression or secret from them. Past settings are crucial because settings are, um, Important in provoking fear and anxiety, um, both to the inhabitants of that setting, as well as to the readers who read about then furthermore, the city things are also useful, uh, because, um, they, they connect the past and the present and, um, got tick is brought about by the eruptive disruptive presence of the past in the present. Now let's take a look at the nature or the Coptic settings and the is a Christmas Carol and Carol scrooges home is described as a glooming suit of rooms that was old and jewelry. School. She lives in a dilapidated building that wants to belong to his deceased business partner. Marley Hoggle explains that the mysteries from the past within settings, like scrooges Abood can take very supernatural forms, such as ghosts alter the beings or the undead. You can very clearly see that the nature of. Screw true. Just home is got the in tune. It's very gloomy. It's dark, it's very old. It's very bleak and it belongs to, uh, the dead partner of emesis crude. Therefore it's very, um, kind of, um, Reasonable to, uh, see reasonable code and code to see, um, Marley's thought was we're sitting Scrooge and wanting him of the father spirits that are going to with the Tam. And it does also, um, important for us to see the connection between the past and the present the past, um, embedded in the identity of, um, Morally, um, the ex partner, the, that partner of Scrooge comes to the press and was it's the present in order to make changes in the present, uh, transform. Scrooge in the precedent. So there is a connection between the past and the present, and that is made possible, um, in a, in a narrative sense, uh, through the settings as well. Therefore, the presence of Marley's ghost that that's make sense in a way, because the home belongs to, uh, um, Marley, uh, the dead partner of central in screwed his own time in own home. Um, Marlene was a Tim in the form of a goes to prepare him, uh, for the visitation of the three Christmas. That should be three, three Christmas spirits. Um, through the supernatural elements, got the fiction, allows a text characters and readers to consider some of the most important desires. Cornbury's sources of anxiety from the most internal and mental to the widely social and cultural, even though. The home, um, originally belonged to, uh, the dead partner Marley. It has now become a scrooges home. Therefore then Marlene was it's screwed me say that the spirit of Marley, uh, was it, was it a screw, just, um, screws in his own home. And, um, there is a purpose. There is the symbolic function, these supernatural elements. Because through these supernatural pretenses, the writer is trying to, to make sense of an individual desires complications that he or she faces. Uh, and yeah, the variety of anxieties that the individual is experiencing and all these that is the desires, the complexities and the anxiety is can be either internal. A psychological, or it could be social and cultural. So the Gothic is a very, very useful Westfall medium, uh, in which to try to make sense, sense of the various pressures on the individual. And here the, uh, center of interest for us is atlases Cruz, who is occupying, who has made, um, the home of his dead partner, his own home now. And he's being wasted by the debt partners ghost. Yeah. And he also further informed him that he will be, see other supernatural elements, which we'll try to read cover. Scrooge, uh, from the roominess top, um, that he is traversing. In fact, written ARRA tribes, one of the most defining characteristics of the cortex, Shawna, as it's creation, as it's creation of tension between the past and the present, the slow revelation of the past, just crude allows him to transform throughout his journey and assimilate each truth. He has repressed within the novella. For example, he must revisit his own past to reclaim the lost ideas of morality and youthful innocence. Also him has come to terms with his and society's poor treatment of the impoverished and needy. Beat me do note that in the godlike, there's always a tension between the parts and the present. There's somehow, um, the idea that the president is trying to, um, make reparations for certain things that had happened in the past past. Um, there's also the idea that. The president is trying to make the past new in some way, accommodate the past in the present. So there is a constant tension conflict between the, um, tradition to the past and the, uh, new traditions of the present in this novella. The goals, the spiritual presences takes clues to his past so that he learns and assimilates the repressed truth from the past and tries to transform himself in the present. He has to, um, We understand regain, uh, ideas of morality. And he has to kind of revisit his youthful, innocent innocence. He has to get back that innocence so that he can look at the world and you, and be a moral member. Of the society and moral citizen of the society or on here to terms with his own past and his own morality and innocence. It's true. Just Abel to, um, relate to the society's treatment of the needy and the very poor. So the ghosts do perform a crucial function wherein an individual is record from within so that he is able to be chartered that will he's able to be generous to the other members within the society.
Video 2: The Gothic Child
While the basic tropes described by huddles well and written car have been accepted as staples of the Shauna critics. Like, uh, Georgie via have recently begun to analyze the Gothic child as another important element of the God thing. While Georgieva recognizes that the depictions of the murders or child in 20th century literature has recently engaged, predicts. She argued that the Gothic child originally actually originates in the literature. Of the late 18th and early 19th centuries and emerges as a specific trope of the genre. It was being emphasized. This set of criticism is that. We do know all the traditional tropes of the God bag, the dilapidated mansions, the, you know, strange settings, um, and trapped, um, victims, uh, usually, uh, young women. So we understand the list of, uh, traditional tropes associated with the God take back the child, the Gothic child is something, uh, which is, um, not being, uh, Well, it's Debbie to a great extent. And she mentions that the origin for the Scotty child goes back to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. And it is an important Oh, true. Yeah. Rather than offering a precise definition. No. If the God thing, child, yeah, yeah. Uses a wide range of texts to close, read a myriad of characters that she considers to be God, the children. Suggests Frankenstein monster and the vampire children in Dracula to judge Divia, uh, got the child, does not have to even technically be a child.
In other words, even a memory of a child counts as a Gothic child to judge Evo. So this particular critic does read. A range of, uh, fictional texts to, uh, study the trope of the Gothic child and for her, um, Frankenstein's monster Frankenstein's creation and blind children in Dracula are part of this, uh, Gothic, uh, uh, child trope. In fact for a Gothic child, doesn't even have to be a really a young person, a child, even the memory of a child can, uh, have got thick, uh, uh, rested for this particular critic. A predator may become a Gothic child. If it fuses opposite characteristics like youth and old age, if it resembles a parent. This reminding the parent of his or her own suppress to you, if it traces a traumatic experience or if it is ghoulish. So these are the ways in which one can, uh, figure out, make sense of the trope of the Gothic child. Um, if it's got the, if a child has the characteristics, the attributes of both, uh, the youth and the old age, then it is a Gothic child that is, does a hybrid day. Youth and old age. And if the child represents resembled some, sorry, federal assembled a parent that end, um, and that's okay. Reminding the parent of his own heart, he's a her own, um, Youth suppressed you then that is also got tick in tune because the parent is taken back in time. And, um, and for example, if it's goldfish, if the child is goldfish in, uh, appearance, so there is a range, a spectrum of characteristics which can, um, structured this, got the child true. And, um, if you, uh, have read a Christmas, Carol, um, The ghost of Christmas past is, is, uh, Ian really like a child and an old person. So there is hybridity there. Uh, just as the point that's mentioned there on the slide where a youth and old age, if combined can suggest, ah, got the child trope. So even though the monster is not technically a child judgy kind of does him a Gothic child because he represents the child of Frankenstein. So we don't necessarily think about the monster as a child, even, even though he is the child of Frankenstein, the scientist. Um, so this is how the trope is built up. It's another example. She considers the children that one pile who see a bite in Bram Stoker's Dracula has got the children because they incite fear into, uh, the reader. So these are some of the examples of, uh, this particular, uh, re um, really disturbing what the true as no only what observes many Victorian writers. I do realize the child SOP two adults through their innate innocence. These right. Does consider the child as well. I'm not yet tainted by the sinful adult world and actually somewhat immune to the corruptive nature of society through his or her angel. Like, no, let's talk about the context. Uh, of the Victorian child, because that would be helpful for us to understand that. Role of the Gothic child in a Dickens is a Christmas Carol in the Victorian period. The child was seen as, uh, a being that is very superior to the adult because the child is innocent. It has not been tainted by this corrupt society. There is purity in the child because it has not yet entered the adult world. The child has seen us, um, As a, being a pure being that's immune to the, um, corrupt society. Therefore the child had injury status. It was associated with, uh, uh, gods beings with angel Christmas. Carol represents an exemplar of a fantastic novel through it's unreal, the stick illustrations of various characters and events. What argue is that fantastical depictions of child characters figure the child as an angel emblem, both of uncorrupted nature and of spiritual truth beyond the material, the youthful characters within Carol reveals reveal truths to Scrooge and the readers through often spiritual or fantastical means. A Christmas Carol is not just a Coptic, a novel, it's a fantastic novel because it has unrealistic representation of society, of characters and events. And they can represent the child as an injure, lick emblem, the child. And, um, they can, since this work becomes a representation of pure nature of higher truth, um, and, and, um, something that's about, uh, the material necessities of, uh, society. So. In Carol, the child is used to tutor a Scrooge, um, and the child is used to, uh, transforms crews and, um, readers are given, uh, a lesson in spirituality, um, through the, uh, usage of, um, child characters. Interestingly would find that Victorian writers, such as Dickens, often included the death of an intellect child within their works. And this depiction becomes a staple of the Gothic and Shona in peril, but that little fan and tiny Tim's impending doom effect, screw just transformation also. These child characters are represented as angel like Tim is associated with religious goodness and fan ardently admires and takes care. Take cares for her brothers Kruge within this fantastic old Victorian text. They can suddenly employs an understanding of child as in July. We do, um, see that. The death of the child is a common trope within, um, they can little now is a classic example, um, in, um, in a Christmas Carol there's the get of Liddell fan, um, the sister of, uh, ethicists Kruge and there is a suggestion that tiny team is going to die, uh, unless. Scrooge mens his ways and does something for the child, the family. So these characters, little facts, tiny team, or, um, uh, embodied as, um, y'all sold in July, uh, uh, Beings. And, um, Tim is very clearly, uh, a boy who is, um, representing a religiosity, um, the higher truth and spirituality and fan of course, uh, loves her brother. Uh, she does take care of the child Scrooge, and, um, we generally get the sense that, uh, children represent, uh, everything that is good and pure and, uh, soulful. And, um, the main idea is that the risks and angelic presence in these beings, Laura Berry studies to try with the Victorian novel and concludes that they aren't represented as innocence who often become victims of society. She argues that while angelic children were evident and fiction, the innocent child negatively effected by society was also the topic of real world discourse. The glottic child characters of Carol frequently illustrate the discourse very appliance of the Victorian child. So some very crucial points here, um, mentioned on the slide. Firstly, we do understand that child in the novel is angelic. It's innocent. Secondly, these children also become victims society. Uh, they are negatively effected by the corrupt nature of society, the greed of society, the obsession with material reality, um, and, and the greed obsession with materials are some of the characteristics of, uh, ethnicities, Scrooge. Uh, as we know, if you read the novel, they've got the child of Carol. Yes. Um, something that, uh, ease, um, easily representing the idea that it is both a innocent and be victimized by society. For example, tiny Tim demonstrates a sense of innocence and even, uh, self-determination through his spiritual devotion, but it's a victim of his financial family. Family's financial welfare. One thing. Ignorance also symbolize victimization by societal issues. Interestingly, child innocence mitigates the association between the Gothic and guilt, sin or prime. That is the innocence of the child defuses, the crime and guilt typically associated with and revealed by the goddamn several interesting points are illustrated here on the slide. Firstly. Yes, there was innocence in tiny Tim. Uh, there is also the status of a victim in his identity because, um, because of his family's finances, he is affected in terms of his health. He is words of death. Yeah. In addition to tiny term. And, um, little fact, we have other representations of children in, uh, uh, Christmas Carol and those children are want an ignorance. These are symbolic representations of particular ideas in society want representing the, um, debt probation in society and ignorance representing again, the lack of environments, um, the lack of knowledge in society and these are represent, did as children. So while there is innocence, Uh, with Tim hood, there is also wanting ignorance, being represented by, uh, children. And this is brought about by the nation religions of the society. Therefore, Though these children are horrifyingly represented. That is thing ignorance. Uh, there is this, uh, idea that we don't really find fault with the children because, um, they are, they are children. They are innocent by default thick nature is diffused the guilt and sin and crime that is associated with these children are diffused marginalized because the core ideas. Shorty and victim hood are the ones that really, um, uh, illustrate the nature of the child. Uh, in that time, no one might assume that got the characters would not be innocent. The children of Carol simultaneously got, again innocent, both the Gothic nest and the innocence enable the Gothic children to help Scrooge on his process of moral restoration. The Gothic trials got thickness is somewhat tamed by it innocence rather than simply terrified Scrooge rather than simply terrified screws. They got the children, therefore can also emotionally affect him, build the risk, a sense that the cortic child may not be, um, I innocent in a Christmas Carol, uh, the risk of a stroke emphasis doc, even though the children are God thing, a wanted ignorance of God thick and, uh, nature. They are, uh, very innocent. They are still an ironically pure, um, that's all the Gothic aspect of these children in, in combination with the innocence prompt. Ethnicities Scrooge to change his attitudes towards, uh, um, the society. So, uh, you a way Scrooge is, um, um, brought back, um, to, uh, salvation by the innocence of the Gothic child. Instead of scaring screws, the Catholic children have a positive effect on the emotions of the central, uh, male character, Scrooge. Tim tiny Tim won't and ignorance, especially the moment, the negative treatments of society without inciting horror. It's Scrooge that causes him to run terrified. Instead, these characters produce sympathy in him, but they've victimized States. That's inciting his transformation, therefore in a Christmas, Carol. The Gothic percents is to not really terrify Edna, Scrooge and the implication. They did not terrify the readers who are reading this work because both the readers and Scrooge understand. Okay. Very profoundly back the children, uh, despite they got the subtext are essentially in Jamaica. So, and therefore in stuff I'm running away from in fear, Scrooge, nice to do his bit and try to, to transform these children in trying to help these children. So it's Lance forms himself so that he can bring kind of change into the society around him. And so that the children would also be helped. Thank you for watching. I'll continue in the next session.
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