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Video 1: The Plot of Frankenstein
Hello and welcome to this lecture on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein and today's lecture. I'm going to talk about the plot of this novel. If you remember the previous lecture we understand. Dan on the purpose of Mary Shelley in producing this golf thing tail, uh, her objective in this deal, uh, is to relate particular novel Frankenstein to a class of fiction called the goddamn.So this, um, Frankenstein belongs to the genre of the Gothic. And that is of self-consciousness on the part of Shelly while structuring and writing this up fiction. And the prime motive, um, visit always remember the prime motive is, uh, uh, to, uh, exploit. Exploit every human being's capacity for sphere, their capacity to sense suspense and horror. So, uh, this is a Gothic tale and the purpose of the Gothic tale is to provoke fear, suspense and horror. So, uh, using this formula. Majorly produces an exciting and excellent work, which is a very, very subtle, and it uses a range of effects which cannot leave neatly categorized into one type of literary piece. Um, in fact, uh, the success of the novel rests in the fact that, um, this novel, uh, has multiple perspective does, depending on the lens that we use to read this section, This novel Frankenstein was written the form of letters. And, um, since it's episode Stollery, it also offers, um, the chance of, for the writer to bring in several different points of view, which means that, um, the reader learns to see events in complex ways and not always from the same angle as the America. So this are also probably, we should remember that the first ever science fiction work too. So, uh, It is an episode I'll re work. It is in the form of letters and that, and the purpose of using this kind of narrating technique is to, um, multiple points of view. Um, and it has an advantage or type person, um, you know, uh, lens because the type of person we do get a leader, um, Only the viewpoint of the integrator. So here we get the viewpoints of several characters from their own points of view. So these are some of the implications of using the, uh, Epic story mapper. And we need to understand that this story is primarily, uh, In the form of letters written by captain Robert didn't do his sister Margaret and, um, along the way, um, The narco switches for Frankenstein, who himself begins to tell from his own point of view. So there are several eyes here because of the nature of, um, episode honorary style in Gothic novels, this kind of framed narrative or, or this kind of multiple points of view, but lots of people tell their tales, tell his stories, let us can also be termed as nesting. Um, so stories are embedded within stories and In, in every story of the relate to their story. So this is called nesting and it is a very important technique in Gothic, our friction and nesting creates, um, both of multiple points of view. And at the same time, there is a kind of a distancing effect. So the story seems to change, uh, and there seems to be more one objective kind of reality as well in this kind of, um, Structure of nesting. So it's, it's distanced and, and there's, you know, the objectivity can shifting from one figure to the other. So what's this store story. So, uh, this time story is told by Robert Walton primarily, and he's on route to the North pole to find not. Western sea passage. And while he's traveling, uh, what investigator, uh, Victor, Joe Franklin, starting from the eyes and victim recalled his happy youth. He tells what about his childhood? About his youth in Geneva, um, with his family and his friends and Hendrick Claire wall. So. You get to know about Richter through the eyes of a warden in a letter that he writes to his sister, mom. So that's the premise. So Victor alternative. What about his student days? Um, at the university of Ingolstadt and wait. Where the student, whether it's, um, you know, where the student who is interested in science and experiment, he embarks on, uh, Rangers in a way of unique, uh, novel scientific experiments to discover that secret of life, the principle of life. And he hopes to produce a living creature from a body parts. That kind of story is given to us through, uh, or what and who hears the story, Victor Frankenstein. So if you feel kind of the story, you, you will be reminded of the previous discussions that we had, uh, about how Mary Shelley, um, came upon this idea of, um, you know, reproducing the spark of life. If you think about the gut. Context and the godly are still read writing contest, um, level as hell. Um, amongst our friends, we kind of understand that all those discussions, uh, went into the making of this particular kind of storyline. When, what, uh, Is experimenting. He is in fact meddling with science. Um, so he's meddling has secrets of nature, uh, end of life processes. And this kind of meddling has tragic consequences. He does the chief, his aim. He is in, uh, kind of, uh, finding, discovering the spark of love, which gives birth to this monster. He is able to, we create life, put together life. Um, in, in this novel way from various body parts and he creates this a new human being. Yeah. He's highest stricken at the outcome because it's a monster that he has learned that he has produced. And, um, she kind of rejects, rejects the creature, uh, and, and runs away. And eventually the creature also goes missing. So. Similarly when, um, you know, gets to hear about the death of his brother. He realized that who is behind the death of his brother. And, um, Victor becomes extremely guilty because someone else is. Kind of, you know, it used for the crime of murder, what does a brother? And that person's also cooked to death. That's Justine Moritz, and she is very innocent of this crush. So you can see how, uh, you know, there becomes a massively responsible for the deaths of innocent lives. The creature is very, very lonely, um, because there's nobody else like him. And he laments that fact and the monsters what's appointment. It's very hard, uh, heartbreaking when he, when he kind of wants to be loved. And, uh, there's this argument that he's not in Italy, evil is not a really, a monster is not born a monster, but he has been turned away well. And in fact, the people well, whom he tries to help. Also kind of reject him when they come to know who the, um, actual helper is, the delays family, they react with Tara and loving, and he's desperate to have a family of his own. So that kind of desperation for companionship is kind of a hyper ending. So you can kind of sense that is the victim is an innocent, what them who becomes dangerous.It becomes really a, you know, a threat to the security of human beings after he has been rejected, not only by his makeup, but by society as well. The society with whom he tries to kind of relate in, in some ways. And he declares that the monster declares that I am malicious. I am miserable. And he pleads with Victor at one point to fashion and meets for him to complete the females for him. He wants his own either. So, um, you know, this kind of, um, uh, situation of the monster is something that is created by Victor and, and, you know, Uh, this preacher didn't ask to be need. And if you can go back to the title page of this, um, novel Frankenstein, you can remember those lines, which have been used by Shelley on the title page, in which we, we see the lines which have been spoken by Adam, Adam, who didn't want it. To be made. So, so that similarity between the two are very, very striking and it's kind of provoked in that evil, in the story, um, through, through such moments. And this desire for a domestic in companionship is something which is why significant. And it seems to argue that no one seems to argue that, you know, if one is all from such kind of born such relationships, then that person would turn into an evil. So. Frankenstein's monster mentioned stag States that I heard of all the ways relationships with buying one human, being to another in mutual warrants. I have come to know all this, and it's very interesting to the monsters. He gets older, he reads everything with Paris laws. So it's very, very, um, significant that, you know, uh, domestic city is key to once, um, Sense of righteousness once morality and all those elements, which, which kind of keeps you sane and happy and healthy. So he wants that the creature wants that and he says that I have never yet. Seen a beam assembling me who claimed any intercourse with me? What was I? So he says that I can't see anybody mirroring anybody resembling me. And nobody is keen to have any kind of conversation with me. Any kind of relationship with me. What exactly am I of these are the questions that kind of create a lot of pregnancy in the novel with relation to this creature. When Victor Frankenstein shares the agony of, um, This monster that he had created, he kind of agrees to create the female and desired by, um, his monster and, uh, She tries to make such a preacher And he's nearly on the verge of giving life to this, uh, female, um, monster. When she kind of has set up parts of our bed. He suddenly worried as to the consequences of what this creation would, um, mean for humanity. So what he does, he immediately, um, puts an end to that female monster. Kills her in front of the monsters eyes. In fact, the monster is watching this creation of from outside through the windows and he's extract that he's happy, he's grinning in a frightening manner. And that's when our dad decides, okay. Um, this is not a great idea. And he puts an end to the female monster and. This mix, this app makes the monster go insane and you know, several terrible consequences into four. Um, Wictor his friend has chilled, um, you know, Henry is killed and, uh, and. Frankenstein is accused of his mother and thrown into prison for a while and Frankenstein book I'm seriously ill. And, um, later on when he records it and he's cleared at the cry, she marries Elisabet and, um, the wife is quite a monster as well. And, um, the, the dies of grief are Vic despite the rise of grief. So all these terrible consequences into, um, Because of that act of Victor of killing that female, uh, the company that, um, the creature that wants to desire it about anything else. So you can see there, the, there is a kind of a reputation of HARO or on horror, uh, because of that one event, uh, of bringing to life, um, you know, the dead from various body parts. So what does decides to have? So he pursues the monster, um, you know, across the Arctic ways and he, and he kind of cheeses after him. And at one point he is near to kind of, you know, uh, meet him then when the kind of the ice shell slopes away. And he is unable to get to that a monster. So, um, at this point he is terribly, um, you know, fatigued, he's exhausted and he has been, and he's rescued by Robert Walden. Who's on this Arctic expedition and he takes them into his ship and, and kind of gives them sucker. And that's how a victim, the rates hail to Robert Walton, who in turn Merissa, uh, at home. So that's how the story has been set up, but eventually, uh, Victor dies. I'm exhausted. He dies. And then he, then he's dead. The preacher returns and mourns over the body of his creator, his father. That's how he called him. And he's extremely remorseful. And he, he says that he from no one, there's no father, uh, pursuit in life for him and he's going to kill himself. He is isolated. He's extremely humble. And he has leaves two phases. Sweet. And we kind of realized that, um, you know, he intends to kill himself on a, on a funeral Pyre, uh, on the Arctic. Now, if we think about the creature, um, it's, it's very bizarre. It's horrible looking. Um, it's not, uh, very, uh, pleasing to look at. I mean, how would it be pleasing because that has been put together by decided, um, uh, you know, uh, uh, hot and this creates a lot of Gothic effect. It's rewarding. That the horror is there. Um, so it also connects them to other very horrifying, uh, uh, Glock thick, uh, figures, you know, suggests, you know, height, for example, uh, in our El students and each case of dr. Jekyll and mr. HAI. So even though the Gothic effect is there, um, there is an element of ability and pathos that the preacher. You've walked the preacher without any doubt, really frightening. And it does kill a lot of people. It murders a lot of people. It destroys families and, and all these. You know, uh, go read crimes, having done by him yet. He kind of evokes a lot of, um, sympathy from, um, the Frieders because of his language. He speaks to a very, very powerful potent emotion written language. And, um, we can see that, you know, . That other creature gives off his wondering, you know, the way he spends his time, make them appeal well to the bombardment of sensations that plead him, because wherever he goes, everything is new to him. He was like a child who has come into this world for the first time. And she's kind of finding his way. You know, there's a, there's a contrast between how the Frankenstein model, you know, depicts himself, uh, And the way Frankenstein sees his, his own creature, you know, the picture that he has created. So there's a difference between the two, not the narratives of the creature, uh, about his own life. And what does not about the creature. She kind of sees the creature as horrific, as very dangerous. Eventually dangerous. And he describes him as the rat and he comes in the hotter, deep, different to the rest of the human beings in this world. And, um, then when, um, when the creature kind of stretch us out one hand, um, you know, reaching out, um, reaching out to kind of meet his maker to kind of, uh, relate to his maker, the creator. Frankenstein kind of required and neatly kind of sense that, you know, there is a vulnerable, there's a fearfulness within the creature and he seems harmless, but despite, um, you know, his vulnerability, the rejections, the constant rejections, the inclinations, um, from society, the way he has been hacked off, very, very good from the world kind of makes him troubled. Commented halfway. I did end on monstrous. Um, you know, ultimately.
Video 2: Frankenstein and Female Gothic
Now let's hear that the women characters and the novel very, very quickly, the most important one is Elsabet who is the sex step-sister and the drug of Victor in the 18, 18 and shin. She is described as a distant cousin. So Victor and in the 1831 edition, she is, uh, revised and, and referred to as the sister, um, you know, who have been adopted by just a mother and adopted sister. Um, so. You know, you can see some minor revisions going on in relation to this particular character Elisabet. So the relative becomes, um, you know, uh, an impoverished child, passive family in Italy who, uh, has been adopted by, uh, just mother Caroline. So that's, um, alphabets, um, contexts and she Maoris, um, vector and, um, the wedding day, she is also killed. By the monster, Victor Frankenstein expects the monster to come for him. Uh, but, um, you know, do a surprise. It goes to Elsbeth and destroys her. So you can see how that, uh, you know, they had actual family unit is destroyed by this creature. Um, and, and it. Resident's a potent threat to a, kind of a happy domestic as a deep, because it's own domestic city is flooded through then a perfect revenge are enacted by the creature on his maker. You know, his, uh, the creature's desire for a mate was destroyed by, um, Victor, uh, you know, his father, um, and the symbolic father and she kind of repeats, uh, he kind of does the same thing, uh, and, and weeks one gins on, on Victor by destroying he's, you know, incipient, domestic by killing. Um, his wife is. Now let's talk about the idea of the female. God, Ellen Morris was the first predictive kind of, um, defying the idea of the female Gothic in her New York review of books in 1974. And she plays and reckless at the heart of her definition of female. Got thick. Um, and she describes the terminology as referring to work that women writers have done in the literary mod that since the 18th century we have called the Catholic. So work produced by women writers in the Gothic genre are kind of referred to us as female Gothic. So after she cites. Uh, Ratcliffe, um, and then more sites Shelley's Frankenstein. And in arguing for the centrality of fear that expedience of women's topic Morris had was automation's preface to the 1831 edition of her novel in order to argue for its intuition in the aesthetics of a women's Gothic.
So, um, If you see this argument, which has been put forth by Angela, right? She says that Ellen had the kind of make use of the preface, the 1831 preface that we discussed in the previous, uh, lecture. And that preface that's been used by Ellen Woolworths to include this particular novel Frankenstein was Shelly within the category of this email. God thick. And what, what it may Shelly say in that 8,900 preface very briefly met Mary Shelley. I called her, said she intended Frankenstein to be the kind of ghost story that hurdle the blood and Quicken the beatings, the heart. So this kind of, um, you know, uh, suspense for, uh, spine tingling, um, you know, um, Events that she seeks to produce in Frankenstein, even separate quick in the beatings of the heart art classic components of glottic are fiction. And these elements are too, um, kind of labeling. Frankenstein as belonging to the category of the email, no literary women published in 1976, kind of differentiates between different strands of, um, Female Gothic in an earlier form, uh, characterized by a rabbi. We have a, kind of a traveling Hawaiian as a hero in some of the terms that you saw in the previous lecture. And, um, it relates to the series of tests. Um, moral tests that, uh, that he, Ryan faces in order to prove herself in order to, um, you know, grow up into a Mitchell womanhood. So, and that's kind of a parallel to the male . This kind of traveling Hitler, organism is part of the female got, um, kind of sketched out by, um, and rap. But in may, Shelley's Frankenstein, we have a different Hine and it it's closer. This kind of, um, Gothic back, uh, maybe Shelly produced in Frankenstein is closer to a male Coptic because of its focused on the permitting of Reacher. Um, one who overreaches one who. It's kind of steps out of the bounds of regulations and from, you know, that kind of, um, you know, it's a finger full store fire from the gods and he went to the humans and for that he was punished. So, um, this kind of idea of overreaching is, uh, an idea that is embedded in the practice of Victor Frankenstein because he overreaches his limit and, um, gives life to the dead and, and. For back, he has to face a series of consequences. He has to lose his loved ones in the story. So, um, so you can see how, um, you know, uh, there is a connection for Frankenstein with the male Gothic, but we can also very, very powerfully argue that it belongs to the female cottage as well.
Now, how do we kind of associate it with the female Gothic? Because there is a kind of a bird myth associated with the novel, right from the beginning. And, um, let's see what that is. Um, Ellen, more, whereas, and later, and Kay Miller have argued that the female or the self effacement, you know, she, she's kind of, um, being very, very modest. Majorly is extremely modest in, in, um, recording. The narratives in Willow the adapting. Remember the previous lecture where these are literati met and discussed stories. And I had this competition to go do, produce a ghost story. So in, in that, uh, Account that Mary gives, you know, there is a mention of her land in capability of inventions, or, you know, she's not able to produce something just off equal marriage with the men. So, uh, that's kind of innovative something that is connected to the female self effacement, but then she is a challenge. And when she kind of pushes herself, she does, it goes story. And, uh, in that. Cool story. We do get a birth med, uh, and, um, you know, and her should, maybe she only herself later called, uh, this particular novel as progeny. So it's as if she's giving birth to, um, this novel, she has suffered a real loss, the loss of a child, and she goes on to produce. This hideous, progeny, uh, in Frankenstein. Uh, so all these factors kind of, um, kind of root the story in the butt myth and be kind of connected to the female. Got pic as well. So this novel origin became closely associated. We understand that the procreation, the idea of giving birth and gestation in that later count of may Shelly and it's popped to her insight is concerning parent age and her on her own parenting. So, um, she lost a child and she was kind of estranged from heroine father. Her mother died when she was born. So there, there is a kind of an, uh, Well obsession. One can say with this idea of parenting and parent page in a Frankenstein Frankenstein, kind of rejects his own child, that the creature that he produced and he, if he chooses to be a good father, a guide to the child that he created. So that idea of parenting is symbolically discussed in the novel. The still hesitant inclusion of Frankenstein in a traditional female is important. So they are, kind of refuse to put Frankenstein within the category of the female goddess because of its connection. With that from male got thick, um, underlined by the, uh, notion of the overreaching from Mathias. Um, and. It also speaks to a broader anxiety Frankenstein or a six to a broader anxiety about how the conference normally in any gender accountable. Well, I think literature, so the reason underlining this novel as to how to kind of place it, whether it is within the female Gothic or, or the other kind. So that enzyme, it makes it. Complex and richer in terms of, um, you know, uh, it's meaning the novel Frankenstein is clearly also discussed, um, within the category of male pursuit narratives, you know, Frankenstein pursuing, um, the monster that she created in order to regrow engines on hair. So it. This novel is categorized as a pursuit, a narrative within this Gothic genre, male pursuit narrative. And, um, we have other examples in William Godwin's, Caleb Williams, uh, published in 1794, and we have other examples suggest Charles Robert METRANS Melmoth the wanderer. Uh, 1820 and James Hawks, the private members and confessions of a justified sinner in 1824. So what we understand from this kind of critical, uh, context to Frankenstein is that there is, uh, an argument for this normal to be classified as a female Gothic and the 1831. Preface plays a crucial role there because it talks about, um, the idea of giving work. Um, and, and, um, it's a wonderful literary work and it's not a normal, but it's an abnormal book because as you mentioned, equality or hideous, progeny, just as a Frankenstein, um, hind of a field. Um, that the progeny that she created is hideous. It's hard. So that kind of parallel is drawn. Then we kind of categorize it as, um, female. Uh, how are there this novel can also be connected to, um, the male got thick, um, because of this idea of. A promise, he and figure who is connected to a Frankenstein because Frankenstein did something which he should not have. He kind of displeased the golf. He displeased nature by giving life, um, in this, uh, scientists manner. And, um, And it can also be categorized as the suit Eric. He goes, it kind of fits used things, um, in a Frankenstein pursues, um, this creature, Robert Walton, this Arctic Explorer procedure, passive, which would make him extremely famous.
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