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Module 1: Vampires, Moral Degeneration and Late-Victorian Anxieties

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Gothic Transformations and Narrative Roles

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Video 1: Harker’s Journal
Hello and welcome to week eight lectures on the Dracula in today's session, I'll be discussing godlike transformations and the nature of not at a brewery. My revenge is just begun. I spread it over centuries and time is on my side. Once regular, this statement is descriptive of the Gothic Ashana, like the count the Gothic encompasses and has manifested itself in many forms, but I'm still good.And the God demonstrates it's how Dracula marks a key moment in the transformation of the gut thick. Hurting back to early God takes preoccupation with supernatural decade, our stock policy and incarceration in gloomy castles. The novel speaks to its own time, but has also transformed the genre, a revitalized station that continues to sustain the God thing today. Dracula's statement the bombastic statement, the ambitious statement that. His revenge has started and it does spread across centuries and that the vampire has time on its side is symbolic of the nature of the Gothic genre itself. What the Jonas spreads over centuries. It continues to fascinate readers across time. And therefore you can see how, um, symbolic, the vampire of figure is for the genre itself. And brand Stoker's got thick is important because it gives the twist to the golf thing, according to, uh, critiques. Um, uh, and, and the critics argued that, uh, this novel, uh, dry killer. Please with the original tropes of the God picks such as, um, there was the durations of the supernatural, the idea of, um, crumbling, our stock Crecy, uh, with its, uh, ruined structures and, um, fate system. And, uh, there are also, uh, the notion of, uh, victims being incarcerated in blink caseloads while all the is, um, Attributes are still, uh, used and utilized in the Gothic narrative. The novel also addresses its own a particular moment in time. It also speaks to its own culture, its anxieties. Therefore one could say that while Dracula addresses the key, uh, and classic Gothic attributes, it also. Bring something new, it really white to license. It rejuvenates the Gothic Ashana, and therefore one can see why this particular mode of the novel, the Coptic continues to be a relevant and fascinating to Redis. Let's talk about Harkness Jonelle, which is an important element in this novel. Keeping his John Little thoughts becomes a therapeutic act of sales person, right? apparently the most secure from Dracula scrutiny because it is written in shock. And in spite of this defense heart goes gentle breaks off at the tone at the point where he has resigned himself to meeting depth at regulars hands. And we subsequently learned that Harper has. Gone through a complete mental and physical collapse. He knows, sounds, becomes a mirror of her cause so old and experiences his emotional vicissitude. The general is also very therapeutic. It kind of helps hark of preserved himself, his sanity, and it is also written in a cryptic cryptic. It is we're going to in shock hands is this new invention of the short hand becomes Hindi to deal with an age old vampire. That's so you can see have modality and, uh, the ancient, uh, um, not at those trends come together and they learned to kind of clue exist, uh, live cheek by gel in this, uh, not a world Harko. Dust fail, uh, in his, uh, journal keeping when he is really at the point of mental and physical collapse. And that is, uh, reflected the fact that he fails mentally and physically it's reflected in the journal as well. So you can you see how the Gerald becomes an embodiment of Harkess soul? His journal gives the reader a memory. I store of images that enabled him to interpret the fact mentoree signs that feel characters his later accounts. They're very in capacity to analyze the accounts in disrespect as an others, Horeca sets the pattern Compulse them to be as accurate as they can. One of the crucial events in the note of opening section is Harper's portion of Dracula shortly after one of his face. How this journal becomes a model, um, as well as a memory, it is, uh, uh, one last space in which evens are recorded. It becomes a store of illustrations, images and ideas, and, um, Harper also advises the others to follow his pattern and he advises them to be as accurate as is possible to be in recording events because, um, these, uh, generals become crucial, uh, um, Batmans of memory. And we have interesting, uh, episodes being captured in Harkers, uh, journal. And she'll be have one such journal entry, barely the count, but as if his youth had been half renewed for the white hair and mustache with changed dark iron gray, the cheeks were fuller and the white skin seemed to be red underneath the Mount was redder than ever for on the lips, workouts, fresh blog that you circled from the corners of the mouth and run over the chin and neck. Even the deep burning eyes, it seemed set amongst swollen slash for the lips and pouches underneath were bloated. It seemed as if the whole awful creature was simply watched with blood. So this is a fantastic description of Dracula after his feast. And you can see how, um, Fleshed out full of blood. He is, he thinks to be filling out with the food that he has taken in. In fact, he seems to be getting younger and that's what is indicated in the first, uh, uh, statement that he looks as if his youth had been renewed half renewed. He is really gaining a youthful nature. In fact, there is. Seems to be even a reversibility of hair, color, white hair, and most just seem to go back to dark iron and gray. So the food sustained the consumption of blood, sustains the count, and you can see it how very, um, visceral and gross. Perfect. The description of Dracula's physical appearance in this entry made by Harker. The burning eyes, uh, the trickling of fresh blood and this at this set of details really fills out. Okay. It makes this image come alive for the readers. Fred I's, which really extends the blood's symbolism to the color of the setting sun, which brings the vampires to life. Similarly, Stoker plays on the double meaning of sanguine, which defines Twinfield's temperament and hints at his susceptibility to Dracula. At the main point. How about the description is dark? Whatever, meaning it may carry wishfully. It is completely ambiguous. There is a very clear, uh, symbolic association between the color red and, uh, the one pilot. There is also an association between the setting sun, which is bloody in appearance and the vampires coming to life. So you can see how one fires are almost, uh, a part of nature. They seem to be associated with natural happenings as well. Well, uh, further what, uh, A set of implications that may be in that, uh, description of, um, count Dracula. Um, getting, uh, Rachel Winnie did one thing is utterly clear and that is that, uh, um, Dracula is so attractive and so powerful in his bloody appearance, that there is an innovative about, uh, attraction to, uh, the viewers as well. The people who look at him, they seem to be drawn by this, uh, powerful, uh, and, um, some real appearance of Dracula. And so during the treatment of the supernatural true in 19th century literature, Andrew Lang suggest that the writer is called between the Siller of waveness and the chard with this of being absurdly explicit. If you paint your goals with two heavier hand, you raise last. It's not fair. You should right. Touch him too lightly. You raised I'm sorry. Despite curiosity, not fear. In the context of the description of, um, regular, his, um, appearance after he has consumed. Okay. A lot of food, um, um, after his three is Andrew Lang. Comment about the description of the supernatural is a significant what Andrew Lang says that if you describe too closely, then there is a possibility that it might, uh, the description might end up comical. But if you, uh, describe, uh, him too likely without a lot of details, then there will be unsatisfied, curiosity, dissatisfaction on the part of the reader. Therefore it is, um, Incumbent on the right to strike a balance in his or her description of the physical state of the one Pyre still contains. These Ron STG revelations with the nudges that tries to avoid recognizing their disturbing implications. Nevertheless, Hurcos journal can raise the overwhelming physical force of Dracula on which later, just again, capitalized and sensitizes the reader to the significance of dogs or wolves, bats, the sunset, which characters naively insist on treating as merely beautiful and other details. What stoke or does in terms of, um, the description of Dracula that'd be just saw on our heart goes, uh Joanel is that, uh, by placing such description in, in and not, or of, he is somehow managing, um, the complications in, uh, uh, description of the bump higher, it is removed one step with, um, With the description being inside a journal, therefore, while the. Visceral nature of the vampire is communicated. It is also distanced and it also sensitizes the reader, um, to, um, such a description of not only the vampire, but also other animals, such as dogs, worlds, bats, and sunset, all of the chap association with the vampire while the characters in the novel might look at them as being part of nature or as simply a beautiful, um, the reader. We'll know that there are symbolic associations between these wages and the vampires.

Video 2: Gothic Reader and Solidarity
Reader is thus invited to make a seed is a recognitions to spot semblances between later events and those in the opening four chapters. The expulsion to with P for example, repeats Harper's travelog may not things she sees reckless eyes gloom in the night, but dismisses it as an option illusion. Exactly. The kind of rationalizing reflects that harakat makes doctors see what things again, like heart. Yeah. He's going mad in all these cases, the principle of delay isn't walled until the third section of the novel. Only the reader has access to. All the journals and letters, and he is therefore in a position, more favorable to making these like nation. So as I already pointed out in my previous lecture, the leader of the Gothic is in a more advantage. His possession, the reader nurse, uh Nardo uh, More or less completely because of all the documentation that he has come across or she has come across. Yeah. And therefore, unlike the characters, such as, um, Harker, Amina, or doctor C, what, who cannot trust their eyes, for instance, Mina thinks that, uh, Dracula's eyes, which are glowing, might simply be okay, an optical illusion and illusion of the light, unlike such correct as the readers are, um, the ones which have the privileged access. To a great knowledge and therefore they have more, um, stronger, they have stronger evidence, um, before they make the assumptions and conclusions. The first four chapters seem to present a miniature capacity. She got the novel in place of Penn nines as an Anne. Radcliffe's the ministries of awful. We now have the mountains of Transylvania now. Although Dracula claims that his descendants stretched back to Atilla the hun, he has a jury pedigree is rather more obvious like Tony and he's clever. He's defined by his strength, pride reckless association with darkness Transylvania, clearly supplied, still go with a revamped botics setting, which he then filled out by drawing on contemporary anthropology accounts. The first four chapters of, uh, Stoker's Dracula very clearly connects this, not with the other Gothic narratives that we have. I've seen and read. For instance, we are reminded of Anne Radcliffe's the mysteries of all four and, uh, the count one, Tony, uh, as well as, um, Keith cliff. Uh, and, uh, LeBron does weathering Heights. So Dracula has his connections to all these characters because when Tony he'd cliff and drag it, uh, all have a, the similarity, um, similar to incomes of strength, it got to some, and, uh, they are association with darkness. So. Stoker's Dracula follows a particular tradition of the Gothic that the readers would have family or with. And Transylvania is also a setting. Doc is symbolically connected to another. They've got the narratives in its, um, it's foreign, uh, nature in it's a remote setting. After chapter four, how were he the problem of introducing fantastic and Sudan materials into a familiar contemporary country? According to David, see the critic that we are discussing for today here. Again, we should turn to Wilkie Collins. Revealing, uh, Emmy Braden's Aurora Floyd in 1865, Kendra Jean sprays quality. And for introducing the mysteries, which are at our own doors into, into fiction and for getting rid of happening, got the props, heat engineers, instead of the terrorist of Adolfo, we were treated to the carers of the cheerful country house and the busy land and lodgings. And there is no doubt that these were infinitely more terrible now. There is a twist to the Gothic, which does happen towards the second half of the 19th century, uh, in relation to Aurora Floyd hinder, James argues that, um, that the glottic drops that the leaders have seen are happening, cliched all these castles and of all four, um, have been swapped. For the terrorists within a country houses and, uh, urban, uh, London settings. And he suggests the art, um, these modern, uh, edifices and demonstrate structures are more terrible than the previously witnessed castles and foreign and remote settings. Now let's see how, um, Dracula fits in with this kind of a perspective. We do know that the modality does make a very strong appearance in Dracula, London, and it's modality is you did use in this novel as well as Abraham. When health scene combines the role of detective psychic investigator, philosopher and scientist, he seems to have been based partly on max. Yeah. Mueller I'm partly on live funnels, doctor his is what are ways our Narcan role is clear. He's called her the novel to kill Lucy who becomes the rallying point for Dracula's opponents. It is one Helsing who counteract the fragmented effects of the NATA, the document in section two. Not before I, uh, discussed apprehend van Helsing, do, uh, finish up the previous point about, uh, uh, modality. Being more terrible than the ancient art settings. And that is the case with Dracula as well. In Dracula, there is a big struggle put up by a team of men who want to chase this empire that is resisting and civilized. Um, uh, but it didn't, and they, and they are very successful in chasing the. Lap higher out of their country and they chase it up back to Transylvania to destroy it. So that particular argument of Henry James does work in Stoker's case too. Now let's look at Abraham bland Hilton. He's a very interesting character because he blends a lot of professions in his character. He is a detective, he's a psychic investigator that he is. Floss festival assigned to. So he is multidimensional in his art HoloLens and he comes to treat them Lucy, and he becomes the rallying point of all the opponents of Dracula. He seems to Marshall, the men together, and he is useful in, uh, explaining such a certain, uh, Frank mended, uh, um, effects in the document, uh, that we find in section two. Is an injunction at the end of chapter 12, wait and see is as much a comment to the reader as to dr. Silver, since brand Helsing is gradually leading characters and reader alike out of the He articulated the confidence that an explanation exists for the past and diverse phenomenon that fill the narrative and accelerates the process of coming together. That takes. Lays in the second half of section two. So van Helsing is a figure who becomes unnatural, re a leader because he is, um, instilling a lot of confidence, not right, uh, in his team, but also he is, um, exhorting, uh, the reader to be patient and see, uh, what is yet to happen. And he, uh, instills them with the faith that whatever is happening does have a set of natural explanation. That section is concluding. Chapter is startling the homogenous after the interruptions of letters, telegrams and newspaper articles, it comes, it's not only one single entry, but if a group action, the second killing of Lucy was solidarity is confirmed by the final vote while off resolution. So, uh, what is interesting to me here? Um, this set of information is dark. The solidarity of the men is established by their group action of eliminating killing, destroying Lucy. And, um, on top of that group action, they also make the stress you shouldn't of eliminating the greatest threat that I had, that they have ever seen when Helsing not only confirms the irrational, but explains it at two key points in the novel. In chapters 14 and 24. He expounds empire Lord, who is skeptical companions by locating vampirism within a broad context. Nature's mysteries, even the caves inhabited by Dracula, a full of strange, most of the geology and chemical world. The caves become a Shelly and metaphor of man's ignorance. There are deep Kevins and fishes that reach none. No winter. And then housing becomes this, uh, Key figures have been pointing out in explaining the unexplainable. He explains the irrational, he mixed it up clear and convincing to his followers, to his companions. And he did the legend of vampire, the vampire lore within the context. Me just mistress one person. Be part of nature. Um, in fact, um, even the capes, dark caves, the bloomy caves, uh, inhabited use by Dracula, a full of strangers and they, uh, they contain some of the geological and chemical mysteries of nature and therefore, um, These caves become metaphors for a man's ignorance as well. Nature is not all explained the way. So that inexplainable part of nature becomes, uh, an embodiment of man's ignorance. And, um, there is this idea that the cables and fishes, um, you know, uh, reach to places that. We don't know where I'm on art. So these are, um, some of the metaphors used to, uh, cook about, um, man's weldability when health things standpoint in this respect and dissipate stokers own in a 99 article in diagonal, the censorship affection here, as in Regulus, Dover suggests a battle that is both internal as well as external. You can see the connection between when Helsinki perspective and the perspective of stucco, which came out in the article, the censorship of fiction, the force of evil anti ethical evil is the more dangerous as it is a natural force. It is as natural for man to sin as to live and to take part in the necessary strife of living. But if progress be a good and is to be aimed at, in the organization of notch, national forces, the powers of evil, natural, as well as arbitrary must become battered all along the line. It is not sufficient to make a stand. How a great here and there, the whole front end must be protected. Still put his arm in doc, uh, while it is on natural format to commit, um, evil actions, yet it becomes important in order to protect. National forces. Um, the whole frontier of humanity, civilization must be protected against evil that anti ethical, evil, uh, it is dangerous to allow it to, uh, take cold war the civilized society, right when it comes from a frontier area. And in a sense, emojis from the mysteries of nature herself. One health things, rallying of the troops parallels, the masculine rhetoric of stealing oneself to duty the possibility of demonic depths to self must be suppressed so that Dracula can be disposed of through external action. Directly that could be a part of nature. Droplet could be part of nature's mystery yet it has to be suppressed in order for civilization to be triumphant. A dragline could be and embodiment of man's evil, but that evil needs to be eliminated. Okay. For everyone's good. Therefore, um, van Helsing, rallying. Uh, of the troops is, um, the rallying of Manatee to do their duty, to steal oneself, to do their duty. So the demonic depths have to be one, uh, over the demonic depths have to be destroyed. And, uh, it is a collective responsibility of the masculine spaces and the masculine human spaces. Amongst the latest readings of Dracula, the vampire as a representation of the region, other and the dangerous outsider is the most prominent the text depicts a weakening nation being invaded by a much stronger outsider who price replicates itself. Dracula expresses the Victorian fear of a nation Marion Lamara. Um, very, um, Clearly puts forward the idea that, uh, we have been, uh, uh, indirectly, uh, addressing, uh, all along that Brackla could also be a representation of any, uh, buddy who isn't other. Anybody who doesn't belong to the home, anybody who is an outsider, it can be a racial that can be dangerous outsider. And this outside is particularly threatening because he is in wading. It's not just one. It's just a, um, no figures. From the outside. That seems to be, that seems to be, uh, in weeding the home. So it, it is, uh, a Dracula becomes a presentation of Victorian fear of the foreigner. It's just Victoria. It does, uh, and embodiment of Victorian inside day. So Dracula becomes a catch all, um, figure to, uh, express, uh, Victorian anxieties. There is also a suggestion that the home is weakening. The nation is weakening, and that's why, uh, such foreign forces are in waiting. And therefore it is incumbent on the men to, um, to defeat these external forces, to defeat the racial others, and the dangers outsiders and protect the purity of the home. As such contract lawyer, leaving his home in Transylvania, crossing the boundaries, praying and feeding on innocence on English. Soil becomes an other par excellence. Uh, this is one of the main reasons behind the everlasting appeal of the vampire. Stokers vampire is both ancient and modern reflecting issues that are sadly still relevant today in a world that feels threatened by otherness. Once again, um, Marin Lamara, very fantastically, uh, explain stark. Contract Dracula is a, is a excellent other rights. It's, uh, it becomes the club other, uh, to the English identity because, um, count Dracula comes from Transylvania. He feeds on innocent on English soil. He's sucking the blood of the, uh, out of the English innocence. And therefore there's a classic, uh, Florida. And this vampire is a hybrid it's wood engine. It's a as well as more than a, it kind of combines both. These apparently entered that tickle, uh, ideas. And, um, it reflects those issues, uh, that are still relevant to this day. Uh, when the world is being threatened by, um, the concept of otherness. Thank you for watching. I'll continue with the next session.