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Module 1: Female Gothic

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Video 1: Gothic and Crisis
Hello and welcome to this session on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in today's lecture, I'm going to talk about the Gothic landscape and how the landscape has symbolic residences. For the values. Um, doc we think are embedded in them, does not have to offer Frankenstein. Now let's go back to that, uh, origin, honoree, narco, which we discussed in the previous, uh, lectures.Um, and in it, we talked how the moment of inception in had implications for this, the structure and content of, uh, Shelley's Frankenstein. So we know that the idea for the novel embellished at the didactic, but, uh, We still have to come to the house for the ambiance of the weather or the hostile rata had implications of, for the residents is the thematic residences, as well as the structural principles of this novel. So the novel embellished the will or the adoptee on the shows of Lake Geneva during the stormy month of June 18, 16, um, so much is explained by Mary Shelley Carson. Itself and the preface. Um, it is not well known how word that the stormy weather was the result of an Indonesian well Kaino, which affected the atmosphere of the Northern hemisphere for three years, leading to crop failure, riots and starvation, maybe Shelly's other writings of the period, as well as Frankenstein revealed her interests and, and concern for nature and the countryside. To a large extent, the novelist, a reflection of these concerns at a time when the natural bug was in crisis. So what's very apparent is the, uh, context in which, uh, majorly produced, uh, there's novel, how she got the, um, you know, uh, the idea for the novel. Um, but we, we. Really don't know the implications of the hostile weather during that period. And in fact, um, the Indonesian volcanoes as much talked about. And, um, and because of that eruption, because of the, kind of, um, the, the migration of the fumes, so to speak, um, to the Northern hemisphere, um, has, uh, produced, uh, had produced a lot of, uh, negative impacts in terms of the, uh, cultivation. So there was crop failure. Which led to riots and people starved. So these implications, hostile weather is something that Mary Shelley had observed really acutely. And that was also kind of symbolically written to, um, there's a friction. Frankenstein. So, um, this novel also reveals, um, Manny Shelley's deep interest in nature, you know, the, how, how nature changes its patterns and, um, how the change has an impact on, uh, the way the society kind of shifts and changes in order to adapt. Um, so this novel kind of reflects on that speculates on this, and it kind of discusses that idea, um, in, in a very, very subtle manner. There are a couple of storms that have two storms in the novel. And the first job is, well, I had memory for the Frankenstein, um, who, uh, I'm quoting from the novel. He, it says that when I was about 15 years old, we had retired to our house near Bellreve. When we witnessed a most wildland and terrible kind storm. It advanced from behind the mountain of JIRA and the Tundra bust. It wants with frightful loudness and from various quarters of the heavens. I remained while the storm lasted watching its progress with here. We also deed and delight. I say, stood at the door on a Saturday. I beheld a stream of fire issue from an old and beautiful Oak, which stood about 20 yards from our house. And so soon as the dazzling light vanished, the Oak had disappeared and nothing remained, but a blasted stump, then you read this passage, um, on a very literal level, it kind of depicts for the readers, the impact of a kind of horrifying, terrible conduct storm. Um, It's wildland, it's kind of, um, illustrated, um, through the impact, uh, on this Oak three, but the risk as I have been pointing out some like, um, Resonance to the hostile weather. Uh, and that symbolism is what is very, very, um, pregnant here. So there is a very old and beautiful Oak and that is important. Um, you know, that that Oak could be representative of several ideas. It could represent the promise of Victor Frankenstein. It could represent, um, tradition itself, you know, the continuity of tradition and that gets attacked and that this what, uh, this terrible and wildland terrible, uh, the storm attacks and Glen then, um, it has over, uh, you can see that, you know, the tree kind of busts into flier. And at the end of that episode, nothing remains Bach a blasted stumps. So. That's where, um, there was a powerful message that there is rupture, uh, in Frankenstein, it's, it's a Gothic rupture and something new and terrible is born, which is restful to look. And that's what Frankenstein does. Then he kind of bought stock in one stuff is so terrible to look that he kind of fleas from that site. And from that horrid site of the monster, the creature that he had brought into that world, into this world. There's a, the second stone home and the novel, and the second stump it's associated with the sudden appearance of the Munster. Um, and I'm quoting from the novel here. A flash of lightning eliminated the object and discovered its shape plainly to me, it's gigantic structure and the deformity of its aspect, more hideous that belongs to humanity instantly informed me that it was the rich, the filthy DMS, and to whom I had given life. It is as if the stone were responsible for the creatures existence. It is eliminated and discovered by lightning in a rather similar way to lead the cinematic depictions of the monsters, but to the storm is, um, , uh, in a sense that in a very primitive way, it lights up the features of, um, the creature very, very clearly vividly to, uh, Victor Frankenstein. So. She kind of looks at the creature and through his art is the readers are also looking at the preacher. It's gigantic. It's massive stages. It's huge because. If you have read the novel, you would know that Victor had to work with, um, big parts and he kind of finds it easier to kind of put together, put together this body in a, in a big, in a bigger way and in a smaller fashion, because it's easier to work with a lot in a larger scale. So it's gigantic. A stager is very threatening and it's deformed, uh, in its aspect. Um, Disability of some kind and it's, it doesn't kind of belong to sh um, she monitored it because it's hideous and look at the way in which, um, Frankenstein calls this CRE jug as the wrench. Um, you know, as something would just in the margins, which is fantastic as well as horrifying. h, it's a filthy, you don't Dell, the demon and he had given life to it. So, um, the, the storm is eliminating this, um, This Creek joined a physical and metaphorical way for the creator as well as for the readers and this moment, this made much use of in later kind of cinematic adaptations as well. It's, it's a powerful scene and, and the storm is used to great effects in the adaptation.

Video 2: Monster and the Landscape
Now, uh, let's kind of, um, for the probe, the relationship between the landscape, the foster landscape and the monster, um, it is not a coincidence. According to the critic, bill Phillips, that the Monster's movements are perpetually mountain words and northward towards the cold barren places for human survival, indeed life. Self is threatened and ultimately extinguished just as much life in the Northern hemisphere between 18, 16 and 18, 18, but similarly threatened and extinguished by darkness and cold. So. That reality of that period, but in 18, 16 and 18, 18 is what has kind of depicted, uh, in the average, um, in the sense that in the frigid, um, landscapes are two, which, um, this monster is constantly traveling to. So those landscapes are hardly the place for human survival for life. Sell, but the monster kind of moves towards it perpetually towards the mountains towards not, but, and, um, the area is kind of is an area of darkness and cold there's hardly any warm. So the monster seems to kind of inhabit those spaces and by underlining its inhumanity day, so to speak. So it's a different kind of creature, which, which, uh, prefers a different kind of landscape. For the implications of the, um, got the landscape in terms all of the metaphoric figurations of the Monster's character. When Frankenstein returns to just the land and marries his fiance Ellsberg, um, it'd be knows that she gets murdered in her bridal chamber by the creature, by the monster frankincense responds. Yeah. Sequel engines and the novel concludes with this pursuit of the monster ever not what's the answer like C in a message left by the creature Frankenstein reads follow me. I seek the everlasting ISIS of the North. That you will feel the misery of cold. And for us to which I am impasse, the soap is that some of the powerful, um, uh, powerful ideas and the entire novel, um, you can also kind of, um, kind of sense the thick of slaver and merging the Gothic kind of mood emerging from the, uh, landscape, um, We did see, uh, previously in our discussions about, but at the sublime, um, as to how something massive, something hostile, uh, is, is, uh, simultaneously beautiful as well as, you know, kind of, um, in all inspiring and, and striking narrow into the hearts of human beings. So these everlasting ISIS of the North. Are sublime delicate. They are beautiful, but they're also I'll start. They are not conducive to human habitation and supply, but yet the creature kind of, um, Hans these spaces and, um, you know, that there is a connection between the misery of course hold. And for us, that one can experience in these Northern, uh, landscapes of eyes and, um, The, the, the kind of, uh, reaction that the monster gets from society it's. Yeah, like he, he is kind of cold shoulder. The monster is cold shoulder. Not only by his parade or the father figure Victor, but also by the rest of society as well. So, um, the symbolic. Coolness seems to be kind of literalized in these moments, um, of, of nature in these kinds of pockets of things nature. And it's, it's very, um, plugged into kind of, um, See that the monster says that I am impulsive. I am kind of immune to the hostility that, that emerges from the landscape. He says I'm used to it because of the experiences that he gathered from human society. So it's a very, uh, ironic, um, comment plugged in comment, um, that, that comes from the amount of the creature. How do they finally come to understand the nature of the relationship between, I mean, um, the monster and the landscape, uh, we do realize that close to Frankenstein is touched by the hand of death. Just as a natural wall between eight and 16 and eight, 18 late moribund beneath a cold black sky, uh, the Monster's behavior together with its ability, do understand unbelievable hardship and deprivation clearly sets him apart from humanity. He is indifference towards is what Tim's at least until the final chapter is the difference is the indifference of a force of nature in capable nature of remorse, nor of rational justification. A monster world can of destructions doc doesn't despair, wherever he passes, like an angel of death, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, then attempts to give meaning to a natural disaster. So, if you, if you look at this kind of criticism, you realize that, you know, just as a Frankenstein, the novel and it's full of depths, there are plenty of people who get murdered at the hands of the creature and Frankenstein is, is kind of horrified by the deaths. Um, Uh, which are, which are kind of, um, somehow, um, brought about by his actions, by his experimentation, um, with, with the principle of life. So, um, the natural world, uh, is somehow embodied by, um, this, uh, free preacher in this novel and justice, uh, how nature was hostile to human society and how. Society itself had been forced to go into hiding, eating in a figurative way because of that, a tempestuous nature of the weather. Yeah. 18, 16, and 1818, the life itself, and in the fictional landscape of, um, Frankenstein seems to have gone into hiding.
Um, so there is that kind of metaphorical signification between the two. Um, and you also realized that the Monster's ability to kind of stand, um, Kind of gigantic, uh, you know, uh, proportions of inhumanity from society, the deprivation that he undergoes, uh, kind of sets him from a humanity. He, he is somehow. Um, you know, uh, said the human because, because he has experienced so much hardship and, and still end yours, and that makes them kind of different to the human and, um, his indifference as well towards his what dims. Um, and, and that also them out as an other, the inability to empathize, uh, next to him, kind of, um, Connected to the force of nature, which is impartial, which is indifferent to the sufferings of humanity. Nature is not capable of remorse or, or of kind of thing, any kind of justification kind of will Rob. So it's, it's like that the way the monster behaves towards his victims is like an element of nature. And. Which is Richard regardless to the sufferings of humanity to its effects. So, um, that's just, uh, why nature leaves, how well, um, in its wake a Frankenstein also Frankenstein's monster also does that, um, you know, he leaves, uh, darkness and despair and he's like an angel of death. So, um, you can see how this. Criticism tries to kind of make sense of a natural disaster and its effects on, on, on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Now, uh, we need to talk about the idea of, um, Promise here is in the previous lecture. We talked about how, um, you know, this, um, Northern has a subtitle, the modern from tears and how a Frankenstein of the scientist can be, um, seen as a modern Pramata's because he tries to create a new race. And Robert Walton also is a, it's a kind of a promise and figure because he tries to find it not less passage. So. So, yes, the, these ideas are there, but how does the novel ultimately treat the idea of the promise in character, a character which tries to kind of, um, offer salvation to humanity, rescue him out or do so, um, All the Frankenstein was published during that amount. It is an anti Promethean work in that it criticizes promising aspirations. And it's therefore Andrew I'm Dick because ultimately, um, yes, if you look at the novel Frankenstein, the scientist experimentations go horrifyingly wrong and Walton, Dustin, uh, kind of, um, ended up triumphant. So the primary thing and aspiration in this case is that the Victor that tries to occupied the role of God, the woman, and giving birth to Ascension being so that prompting aspiration of playing God or playing the woman or playing nature is kind of punished through that creature. That sentient being that victim Frankenstein brings it to the world. So, uh, he is attacked, chastised, punished through that free judgment. Self, um, and, and the punishment takes the form of the depths of his beloved, um, you know, friends and, and life. So. You can see how that notion itself is criticized really powerfully in this novel so that there is an anti romantic sentiment, um, in such a kind of arc of trajectory by the Promethean figure is defeated.
Also kind of, um, you know, anti scientific because it does one also can be seen as a cautionary tale against the, um, a scientific project as well. So it, it offers a lot of complexity, um, to the reader to kind of, um, you know, think through. Okay. Um, let's now talk about, um, the residents, uh, of, um, the symbol at that the creature, uh, has become. You know that there are arguments about what this monster stands for this monster without a sword and the Sandra Gilbert. No, it's there are other ways we frankincense moves to a stand in formation, Shelly. Um, it can be a standard. Yeah. So the author herself, and for femaleness in general, the monster can represent the abjection the rejection suffered by, um, Bye bye women in general, a while pop culture loves to fixate on Victor as the mad scientist, some of them most moving parts of the book come from the mounts. Just more log, which Gilbert reads as a philosophy meditation and what it means to be born without the soul or a history as well as an exploration of what it feels like to be a filthy mass that moves and talks, I think, and others, a creature of the second sex. So why. You know, popular culture sees this as a cautionary tale against the excesses of science. Um, you know, that's just one night of the second night, according to Gill, but the more interesting narrative for her is that, uh, you know, the monster is given, uh, remarkable dialogues, remarkable conversations in this novel, remarkable monologues, um, in this novel and, and those monologues can be, you know, considered. Philosophy meditation's ruminations of this monster on what it means to have no history now. So no connections, no relations to the rest of society. And it just becomes in the eyes of society, a simply a filthy mosque that moves into, um, it, it becomes an, um, an abject, um, a thing, an animal and other, a creature. Which is just secondary to the mail. So you can see the, you know, the various representations of hierarchy, which can be projected this monster. Um, um, that for this reason, this is a particularly resonant Marvel, which rich kind of find a, um, uh, readership, a worry of people across nations and, um, uh, times. Now, ultimately, how do we see the value system of this? Novel Frankenstein by Shelly, um, who is the real monster that can, um, we also asked of this novel, of course we have a very visible monster in the creature that Victor creates, but there is a symbolic monster as well, which could be the creator, the father itself, or it could be society because it kind of turns this into a monster by rejecting it by not accommodating it. So ultimately bought the creature. Um, Victor parades and Victor himself can be seen as monsters, but cross society, socially established boundaries bet, mostly different ones. So there is a lot of border crossing happening, um, in this novel, uh, the creature process, the border between life and death. He's kind of brought back from Deb, so to speak by Victor. Um, so it crosses humanity and bestiality. Is it human or is it a best deal thing? Uh, you know, it seems to be both or the previous interview board while Victor crosses the border between the human and the divine. So lick to himself, um, you know, place both God as well as the human. So he owns across various domains here and that becomes an issue, usually problematic more of our, um, they also cross physical boundaries, physical borders by pursuing each other through several different countries. Yeah. Does spreading the threat they pose. Um, so this kind of threat is symbolically carried over to other countries. So Richter Frankenstein seems to be taking the idea everywhere. Um, the idea of how to kind of do this border crossing in a way. So, but assembling a creature from debt parts and giving it life, Victor wildlife, it's the sanctity of human life and depth. So that's, that's pulled and that's crucial. That's why I do something we need to, uh, remember constantly he, Victor is the ultimate, um, You know, uh, Pramata is who is, who does what he's not expected to do. He violates the sanctity of human then life and death, and thereby dealing with eating set sanctity as a norm. So while he does, um, you know, transgress through his friend, France, Russian, we are, um, told that, you know, Sam today is that is the ideal that Devon should not be. Question the demand should not be you serve of what it, um, shouldn't be served of its duty. So that's what Victor does. He is served the rights of nature. He used subs the rights of the mother that he was ups. He subs the rights of the theater and I keep takes away, um, you know, the duties of, of someone else. Um, bill God, be it, the female be it needs. And that why Alation is punished. The Monster's behavior represents disregard for human life and callousness, of course, the monster also, um, you know, transport, right? Bye bye. Being inhuman, even though he's put together from human parts, so that disregard to human life and callousness is all the partners. Um, so you can see, um, how through these two monsters, uh, the value system is reinforced, um, to the reader in a very, very clear. A man in a powerful manner. If you're transplanted, you will be punished. Thank you for watching. I'll continue the next session.