The key points from this module are:
The goals of Modern Cryptography are:
Security is targeted only against efficient adversaries
There is a small probability of a break in the scheme
An Efficient algorithm is an algorithm with a polynomial running time.
Negligible functions are functions which are asymptotically smaller than the inverse of every polynomial function.
An encryption process is semantically secure if the ciphertext doesn't reveal any additional information about the underlying plaintext to the attacker.
A pseudorandom generator is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudorandom string such that no statistical test in the class can distinguish between the output of the generator and the uniform distribution.
A stream cipher is a method of encrypting text (to produce ciphertext) in which a cryptographic key and algorithm are applied to each binary digit in a data stream, one bit at a time.
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