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Module 1: Qualification Planning & Design Process

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Integration and Qualification

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In this class we will be looking at the integration and qualification ofengineering systems. As I mentioned in the previous lectures this is one of the finalstages in the design of engineering systems where we try to integrate differentcomponents, different subsystems which we already designed and then qualify thesystem to make sure that it meets the requirements of the system or it meet needs thestakeholders expectations. The two important points here are the integration andqualification, basically integration is assembly of components and subsystems to makethe whole system and qualification is basically the validation and verification of thesystem to ensure that it meets the design requirements.So, we will go through these two steps basically the integration and qualification andthen see what are the important steps in holding an integration and qualification, as wellas what are the procedures to be followed for making sure that the system is integratedand the performance is ensured a through a validation and verification stages.(Refer Slide Time: 01:28)
So, let us go to the design stages which we already discussed that there is a 6 functions ofdesign process and this is the last one which is the defined the qualification system forthe system basically we look at the integration and qualification.So, we are going through these stages that is the system level design problem, systemfunctional architecture, physical architecture, operational architecture and interfacearchitecture. So, we are completed all these stages and the last one the sixth function isbasically the qualification system where we look at the integration and qualificationaspects of the engineering system.(Refer Slide Time: 02:03)
If you look at the system v diagram which we discussed in one of the classes when youdiscussed the system design process you can see that the system design can be actuallybe classified into a decomposition stage as well as an integration stage. So, thedecomposition stage is basically we try to decompose the problem into small modulesand then try to develop these modules and then we start the integration process.So, here the demon stroke of the v will be decomposing the problem basically we willlook at the configuration items and then make them to design to specifications and thenverification plans. And this is the part of the system engineers job and then this is thedesign stage where the design specialists or mechanical design or electronics whateverthe specialization needed they will be doing the design stage over here and then once theitems are built and we will go for the integration and qualification stage.
.So, this is the stage where we are now will be trying to integrate the items what are thedesign and then it will be doing the process of verification and validation you know toqualify the system to make the customer requirements.(Refer Slide Time: 03:15)
So, the integration basically can be a defined as the process of assembling the systemfrom its components which must be assembled from there CIs. So, it is a process ofassembling the components or the configuration items and making them sub assembliesand then making assembly and finally, getting the whole system ready. So, that is theprocess of integration.
(Refer Slide Time: 03:38)
Qualification on the other hand is basically ensuring that the system actually meets thecustomer requirements. So, here it is the process of verifying and validating the systemdesign and then obtaining the stakeholders acceptance of the design. So, here this is oneof the crucial stages because these are these stage we get the acceptance from the stakeholder.So, once the stake holder says that it is acceptable to them then only we can actuallyassure or we can actually say that the system design is complete. So, at this stage we tryto look at the customer what are the requirements the customer has specified and whetherwe are actually satisfying these requirements. So, we will go through validation andverification stage and then ensure that it is the system requirements are met thestakeholders requirements are met by the system and the customers and the stakeholdersaccept the system. So, that acceptance is the final stage of a system design. So, thequalification is the stage where we ensure that the customer is happy with the product orthe system and he accepts whatever the functions we provided and that is sufficient tomeet the customer requirement.So, you can see there are two stages one is the verification actually we can see theverification and validation of the system. So, we need to verify and validate the system.So, what is the difference between this verification and validation? Basically aqualification system must be designed simultaneously. So, before going to the difference
between verification validation will just me give some important points like thequalification system must be designed simultaneously with the operational systems. So,when we are defining the qualification system that is even before we come to the stage ofqualifying the system we need to have the qualification system designed.So, we need to ensure that we have a particular procedure to make sure that the systemrequirements are met and the qualification how do we actually do the verificationvalidation process, what are the documents needed, all those seems to be decided at thisstage the qualification system development. And this has to be done along with theoperational system development because in the operational system we know how thesystem is going to be operated. So, when we develop the operation system we ensure thatwe develop a qualification system also which actually details the procedure to befollowed in ensuring the quality of the system or in verification and validation of thesystem.The exit criterion for integration and qualification is acceptance of the design bystakeholders. So, that is the exit criterion. Once the system is accepted then theintegration qualification procedure is over, till the stake holder accepts the product or thesystem. So, we will not be able to exit from the design process. So, now, to exit criterionhere is the acceptance of the system by the stakeholders.(Refer Slide Time: 06:23)
As I mentioned that verification and validation and acceptance are the three proceduresin the qualification process. So, as you can see here the verification is the determinationthat the system will do us right. So, here we ensure that the system will do us rightverification is basically ensure that the system built was right or the system what we arebuilding is the right one what actually we wanted to decide and validation determinesthat the right system was built. So, that is the difference between verification andvalidation, validation determines that the right system was built. So, we have somerequirements from the customer and customers have specified that the system must meetthese requirements and we design a system.So, first thing is basically to we need to ensure that whatever the system we aredesigning is actually meeting the requirement or the design is the right system isdesigned for that particular job. So, that is the validation. In validation we ensure thatwhatever we are building can actually satisfy the customer requirements and theverification stage we ensure that whatever we wanted to design the same design has beenbuilt for the system. That is the that the system built to us right in verification we ensurethat the system built to us right and validation we ensure that the right system was builtfor the particular application. So, this is the basic difference between verification andvalidation.As you can see here in validation there are different kinds of validity that is one is theoperation validity, other one is the conceptual validity and third one is requirementsvalidity and the design validity. So, in order to ensure that the validation process iscomplete we need to ensure that all these validity that is the operation validity,conceptual validity, requirements validity and design validity are satisfied. These arebasically used to ensure that the right system was built to meet the customerrequirements. As you can see here in this v diagram we have to have different validitiesas well as the verification procedures. I will show you a better picture here you can seethe different kinds of validities. So, this is the stakeholder requirement and this is theoverall v diagram for that is system design. So, if you look at you can see the differentprocesses involved in the system design. So, these are the system engineering activitiesand here it is the design engineering activity.Now, here if you look at the validities the first one is the conceptual validity. So, validityis basically to ensure that the right system was built we have some stake holder needs
already identified at this initial stage and then based on these stakeholders needs wedevelop an operational concepts. So, the conceptual validity is basically to assure that orto ensure that the operational concept whatever we develop actually needs thestakeholders needs. So, basically it is a one to one correspondence or by looking atwhether it actually matches the stakeholders needs and the conceptual validity we look atthe operational concept and the stakeholders needs and ensure that this particularoperation concept can satisfy the stakeholders needs that is the conceptual validity. Weneed to ensure this conceptual validity before we go for any other processes. So, theconceptual validity is important because if you make it mistake in the conceptual validitywe may be making a system and even the verification process it satisfies you would notbe able to satisfy the stakeholders needs because the system built was not right.So, conceptual validity ensures that the operational concept what we chosen for thestakeholders needs to satisfy the stakeholders needs is the right one and the it is valid forthat particular needs of the customer. That is the conceptual validity. Then we have theoperational requirements. So, we have many requirement from the operational conceptand from other sources has been discussed in the initial stages the originatingrequirements documents will be developed. This originating requirement documents andthe requirements identified in originating requirements and the operational concept and ifwe find that there is a match between these two then that is the requirements validity.Requirements validity is basically ensuring that the originating requirements aresufficient and the operational concept for this operational concept we identified all theoriginating requirement. The another requirements have been identified or we have toadd few more requirements or there are any requirement which are not needed. So, thatkind of an analysis is actually the requirements validation. In this requirement validationwe look at all the requirements identified for this operational concept as well as to meetthe customer needs and if they are satisfying then we are getting the requirementsvalidity.Then we have based on this originate requirement then the system requirements we startdeveloping the functional architecture then the physical architecture and then thespecification for the components for or the system. So, this actually ensures the designvalidity. So, if the component whatever we need to design or the subsystem whatever wedesign if that can meet the originating requirements and that is the design validity and.
So, in design validation you look at the components and the specification and then ensurethat that can these components can meet the requirements already identified. So, that isthe design validation. So, at this stage, we have this three validation basically the aconceptual validity, requirements validity and design validity and the last one what weneed to ensure is the operational validity.So, operational validity can be assured only when we have the complete systemdeveloped. Once you have integrate all these elements and then get the complete systemthen we look at the system and its operation and see whether the operational conceptwhatever we proposed for this customer needs where this is matching with the systemwhat we developed. This is a validated, we can ensure that the operational conceptwhatever we wanted to develop is actually developed in the original system and thatensures the operational validity of the system. So, these four validation processes theconceptual validation, the requirements validation, design validation and operationalvalidation ensures the validation process of the system.So, that is the first one in qualification, so the basic requirement or the basic idea ofvalidation is to ensure that we build the right system and that system can actually meetthe requirements of the customer and this is insured through the four processes ofconceptual validation, requirements validation, design validation and operationalvalidation.And the other one is the verification. So, we have the validation and verification.Verification is basically to ensure that whatever the system we designed and whatever wedeveloped they are actually matching with each other or the requirement or the designrequirements or the design whatever we proposed here is actually achieved in the actualdesign.So, that is the verification of the system. So, as we develop the system we verify that thesystem the elements we developed or the sub system we developed actually meeting therequirements of the system we already designed. So, that is the verification. So, ensurethat the system will to us right for this, whatever we identified and whatever wedelivered are actually matching. So, that is the developmental verification. So, once wehave this validation and verification this actually ensures that whatever we wanted to
develop that is achieved in terms of the validation as well as the verification and then thelast one is basically acceptability of the system.So, acceptability is basically the process by which the customer or the stakeholder acceptthe system what we designed. So, once you have these validation and verification itensures that the whatever we wanted to develop as the design engineers we havedeveloped based on the operational concept and then other requirements and the systemis delivered in hardware or software form. And then we do acceptability tests with thecustomer or the stakeholders and once the stakeholders requirements are satisfied andthey will accept the system and that actually completes the cycle of v cycle or we startwith the stakeholders needs and with satisfying the stakeholders needs through a designV process where we go through the design process and then we go through theintegration and qualification stages and finally, deliver the system as per the customersrequirement. So, this is the process of validation verification and acceptance of thesystem.(Refer Slide Time: 14:55)
Here you can see in this acceptance the validation and verification there are two chainsas you can see there is a high level chain and a low level chain. In the high level chainwe look at the conceptual validity operation validity and the acceptance testing. So, thehigh level this at the top level will be having the conceptual validity which actuallyensures that the operational concept can meet the stakeholder needs and the operational
validity the operation of the system is as per the operational concept what we proposedand acceptance test is basically the customer accepts the system at what are we designs.So, this is the high level chain which actually as part of the qualification process.And in the lower level a chain we have the validation the requirement validity, designvalidity, then we have the verification and operation validity as part of the operationvalidity it is also coming under the low level chain where we look at the components orsubsystems and that their operational validity. That is why we have an overlap of theoperational validity in high level chain and the lower level chain.The lower level chain we may be developing some components or subsystems and thenbe checking whether actually that meets the requirement that is the operational validity atthe initial stages. And then the final stages, once you have assembly of the whole systemthe complete system is developed then we have the operational validity at the high levelchain. So, this is the high level chain and the lower level chain of qualification processwhich ensures that the tied system has been built and the system built was right. So, thisis the process of qualification of an engineering system. I think this is same a diagramwhich study the more clarity.(Refer Slide Time: 16:36)
So, let us go through the details of verification and what are the important stages to beemployed for verification as we saw that validation there are different kinds ofvalidation. In verification also we need to go through few steps in order to ensure that it
meets the system requirement. So, basically verification is the matching of configurationitems, components or subsystems and the system to their corresponding requirements toensure that each system has been built right.So, in verification stage we look at the configuration items or the smallest level ofcomponents and then the component subsystems and the system to their correspondingrequirements to ensure that each system has been built right. So, that is the verificationstage. We ensure that each system has been built right to meet the customer requirementsor the design requirements. And for verification to be successful originating and derivedrequirements must be testable that is the requirements must be single statements that areunambiguous, understandable and verifiable.So, this is an important statement for when we start for the verification or the systemqualification process we need to ensure that we have all the requirements specified inunambiguous manner. So, when we discussed about the originating requirementsdevelopment we stated that there are some specific things to be taken care of while wedevelop the requirements, one of the important points is that the requirement should bevery clear and unambiguous that is we should clearly state what actually the requirementfrom each component or place system and then only we can actually verify whether it isit meets the requirement or not.When we start the developing the system that is the importance of requirement analysisand requirement documentation because that is going to be used as a statement forverification of the system that is why we need to write it very clearly unambiguouslybecause those who are doing the verification process may not be the same person whoactually wrote the requirements. So, it should not be interpreted in a different way that iswhy all the documentation of requirements especially the requirement from differentcomponents and systems the interpreted requirements all those things should be clearlystated and the verification requirements also should be clearly stated, so that this canactually every component every item can be verified against those requirementsidentified. So, that is the importance of staging the requirements in a clear way.So, it to be successful everything should be single statements that are unambiguousunderstandable and verifiable. So, this plays a major role in verification. So, identifying
the requirements and then writing down the requirements are very important when itcomes to the verification of the requirements or the system verification.(Refer Slide Time: 19:25)
So, you can see here the IDEF0 diagram for qualification integration. So, you can seethese are some of the functions in the top level functions in the system qualification.(Refer Slide Time: 19:31)
So, system design this is perform qualification integration activities is one of the subfunctions in the design process.
(Refer Slide Time: 19:39)
And this can actually be divided into its sub functions as contact early validation. So, theearly validation is basically and before we actually start the design of the system we gofor the early validation like operation validity to ensure that the operational conceptwhatever we developed actually meets the requirements and then we go for theintegration and verification. So, once we have the other subsystems componentsdesigned then we will be having the integration stage and the integration and verificationwill be carried out and then we will be doing the validation. The final validation wherewe look at the operational validity and component pressure validity as well as thevalidation for conception validation and requirement validation will be carried out andthen we will be going for the acceptance test. So, these are the various stages involved inintegration and qualification of that system.So, this clearly validation basically ensure that the system or the operational conceptwhatever be developed is sufficient to make the customer requirements and then fromthis stage we will go for the design. We can start their designing the system in terms ofits functions functional architecture physical architecture and the operation architectureand we develop the configuration items specifications and using those specifications willcarry out the integration and verification of the system to ensure that the system will dous right and then the right system was built will to look for the again a validation.
So, we will be getting the validation document will be using the validation document todo this and verification data will be used as a less the prototype and other data will beused for validation purpose. And one, using the validation data and the validationdocument and other details from the ORD, the originating requirements documents wewill be doing an acceptance testing which will ensure that the system designed isaccepted by the customer or it actually meets a customer requirements.(Refer Slide Time: 21:38)
And once this meeting the requirement then we are getting an operational system meetsthe requirements of the customer and we will be getting the acceptance and testingdocument also as part of the output. And the final output from this stage will be basicallyan integration documentation and acceptance test documentation and you will be gettingthe operation system also. And whenever there is any design changes that also will bebrought into these stages. So, that all the design changes are incorporated in thevalidation and verification stages and that also will be getting as an output from this astage of a design process.That is the various steps involved in the verification and validation in the qualification asystem.
(Refer Slide Time: 22:34)
Unless I mentioned we look at the verification and validation of the system and we needto look at the integration of the system or how do we actually do the integration ofcomponents in the system. So, there are different ways of doing it, especially when itcomes to hardware or software that the methods used are different when compared to thehardware systems. So, we need to see what are the different procedures availabledifferent methods adopted by various industries and various organizations and varioussectors of organization in developing, in integrating system.Basically integration is to get the assembly of all the components and through ensure thatit actually the when you assemble the components configuration items components andsubsystem and get the complete system with performance is ensured to meet thecustomer requirements. So, here and the integration we do the component integration andverification, we will do integration of the components and then verify whether that meetsthe design requirements and then we perform the subsystem integration and then do theverification again to ensure that it meets the requirement and then perform systemintegration and verification. So, these are the three stages normally followed inintegration purpose.First we go for the component integration and then go for the sub system integration andthen go for the system integration. So, basically this is more like a bottom up approachwhere we start with smallest item of the components then go to the sub system and do
the system integration. And every stage, we will be going for the verification. So,whenever we have a component integration we go for a verification stage to ensure thatthis needs the design requirements and then we go for sub system integration and then gofor a verification again ensuring that it meets the requirements and then perform thesystem integration that is the final system integration and then do a verification to ensurethat it meets the requirement specified. So, these are the steps involved in the integrationprocess.(Refer Slide Time: 24:44)
And there are different processes followed then integration are one is the bottom upapproach. As I mentioned in bottom up approach we begin with the configuration itemsand after each configuration item is tested the components comprising multipleconfiguration items are tested and the process is continued until entire system isassembled and tested. So, this is the bottom up approach.It begins with the configuration items and after each configuration item is tested. So, wedo the testing of configuration items initially each CI is tested the componentscomprising multiple CIs are tested. So, we do the individual testing and then go furthercomponents with multiple CIs and we be tested and then it is continued until entiresystem is assembled and tested. So, it will go one by one they start with the smallest theCI configuration item test each configuration item and then assemble the configurationitems to components then do the testing and then assembled the just components till the
entire system is assembled and then do the testing. So, that is the most common bottomup approach in integration.The advantages of this method is basically to easier to detect flaws in tiniest pieces of thesystem. Since we are starting with the configuration items or the tiniest pieces of thesystem and we are doing the testing it is easy for us to find out the errors in any smallitem small pieces of the system. So, that is one of the advantages of using the bottom upapproach. And then the test conditions are easy to create because they are testing theindividual CIs or the small items very easy to develop the test conditions, unlike testingthe whole system will be doing the individual testing of the system, so we can writedown the procedures very easily since they are very simple products simple pieces or notso complex components.The main problem with this is that the major errors are not caught until the end becausemost of the times there will be errors in the integration and these errors are not found tillthe last moments. The individual items may be perfect, so we can actually identify theflaws in the individual items, but the major errors of integration will not be caught untilthe end or towards the end of the design process then only will be able to catch the majorerrors. So, that is one of the problems with the bottom up approach.Most of the system design is follow the bottom up approach because of these advantagesthat we can test small parts. And it is easy to develop the test condition for small parts,but the major problem is there is this one that you do not to get the major error is untilthe end of the system design or towards the or end of the design process integrationprocess then only you will be getting the major errors and solving those major errors atthat stage maybe and may be difficult also.