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Module 1: Understanding Textile Fibres, Yarns, and Fabrics

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Before you can use materials, you need to know what each of them is so you can differentiate between them.
Fibres
The term fibre can be used to describe an animal, mineral, or vegetable substance. It can be natural or synthetic.
Yarns
This material emerged in the 18th century using a variety of methods, including open-end friction and centrifugal spinning. These processes all work to twist and spin fibres, which forms the yarn you see and work with today.
Fabrics
Fabrics are products or materials that are made by weaving, knitting, or crocheting. There are also non-woven fabrics, which are constructed through twisting, braiding, and felting.
At first, it might seem like fabric is a simple cloth, but to understand fabric, you have to look at its ingredients. If you look at a basic fabric sample, you might notice that it consists of multiple threads. You can find the quality of the fabrics hidden within these threads
What is a Thread?
All threads begin as simple fibres that can either be very weak or strong depending on their properties. When you twist together short fibres or continuous fibres, it produces yarns, which are responsible for the strength and flexibility that make up a good thread.
This process is called ‘spinning’.
How to Determine Thread Quality
When you are selecting a thread in garment design, there are several factors that you should consider.
Raw Material
Processing
Ease of Use
Strength
The little white label on your clothing is a very telling piece of information regarding your garment. However, to understand what you will read and eventually write on that label, you need to have a grasp on the main fibres used in the fashion industry.
Let’s begin with a basic understanding of fibres and their applications in clothing.
Natural Fibres
These fibres are split into animal and plant fibres. An example of a natural fibre would be cotton or wool because these fibres come from natural sources.
Regenerated Fibres
The next group of fibres that you need to be familiar with are regenerated fibres, which were introduced in the late 19th century as an inexpensive solution to silk. These fibres begin as a raw material known as cellulose and are then reformed or regenerated. For example: Rayon and Viscose
Synthetic Fibres
This final group is another man-made fibre that is frequently used in the fashion industry, primarily to manufacture inexpensive clothing.
Polyester
Nylon
Acrylics
Metallic fibres
Polymer fibres
Microfibers
Plant Fibres
The following are a few of that you will see and work with the most:
Cotton
Flax
Hemp
Jute
Animal Fibres
Some of the most popular animal fibres include:
Silk
Wool
Cashmere
Camel
Fabric Construction:
Woven Fabrics
A woven fabric can be manufactured in different widths and cut in different shapes.There are three types of woven fabrics that you should be familiar with:
Plain weave
Twill weave
Satin Weave
Knitted Fabrics
Knitted fabrics can be either weft knitted or warp knitted. 
Laced Fabrics
Lace consists of a network of yarns or threads formed into an intricate design. There are two common types of lace fabrics: Trimming and Nylon
Woollen Fabrics
Woollen fabrics are loose woven fabrics that are constructed from wool yarn using a plain or twill weave.
Blended Fabrics
A blended fabric is a combination of two different types of yarns, which results in a third type that contains both properties of the fabrics.
Non-woven Fabrics
When a mass of fibres is held together with a fusing action of heat, adhesive, or chemicals, it becomes a non-woven fabric.
You need to take the following fabric performance characteristics and finishes into consideration when deciding what fabric to use:
Abrasion Resistance
Absorbency
Antibacterial
Anti-Static
Flame Resistant
Stain Resistant and Stain Repellent
Wrinkle Recovery