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Welcome to Unit 4. 
In this unit, we're going to focus on some of the speaking skills that are important 
for job seekers to develop. 
Networking is a big part of the job search process. 
We're going to talk about what networking is and 
why it is important in your career development. 
In later videos we will focus on what to say and how to say it.


Let's begin with some definitions. 
First, a network is a connection between many things or people.


In career development, networking means connecting with other people to 
talk about your job search and career goals.


You can talk to other people formally at a professional conference or 
informally at lunch with friends.


When you are networking you are meeting new people and 
learning more about different jobs and companies.


Networking is about building professional relationships, which take time to grow.


When you meet new people you learn about common interests, or 
things you both know about. 
For example, two co-workers meet while working for 
a large financial company in New York.


They quickly learn that they both went to the same university. 
This common background is the beginning of their professional relationship. 
And may help them learn about some other things that they have in common. 
Such as, major or 
subject areas, work experiences, or other people they both know. 
These are called mutual friends, or acquaintances.


When you meet new people, and 
discover common interests, they become a part of your professional network.


There are many ways to increase or add to your professional network. 
First, you can join a professional organization, 
which is a group of people with similar occupations or careers. 
Second, you can use social media websites like LinkedIn, Facebook or Twitter. 
Third, you can contact College Alumni groups. 
Alumni groups are a connection of current and 
past students from the same university.


Once you have a group of people, your network can be very important for 
your career, because they might know about job openings that are not advertised.


When some companies add jobs, they may not need to advertise online or 
in newspapers because they use their current employees to fill new positions.


Let's look at an example of how networking really works.


Jack is a manager at a large tech company and he is looking for 
an additional web designer to add to the team.


After he told his team, Martha remembered that her friend, 
Jin Soo, is a web designer and looking for a new job.


Martha calls Jin Soo and recommends that he contact her manager Jack about the job.


As a result of this network, Jin Soo learns about an unadvertised job, 
sends his resume and cover letter and interviews for the job.


After the interview, Jin Soo thanks Martha with a phone call or 
by sending her an e-mail or a letter.


In summary, we have learned that networking is connecting with 
other people to talk about job openings and career goals. 
We also learned how to increase your network by joining organizations and 
using social media websites.


Remember that networking is about building professional relationships and 
can help you to learn about jobs that are not advertised online or in newspapers. 
Now, go on to read Text 1 which has more information about networking during the job search.


In this video we're going to discuss making small talk.


We'll define what small talk is, give some examples of it and explain 
how making Small Talk is relevant to networking and ultimately finding a job.


So to begin, let's define what Small Talk is. 
Small Talk is when you make polite conversation with someone.


Often the conversation is with someone you don't know very well, 
so you may have to speak with this person for the very first time. 
A conversation may begin as small talk and 
then continue into speaking about something more important.


But usually, 
Small Talk is the first stage before you can get to that more important place.


For example, let's say you are in a business meeting with your co-workers. 
You might begin the conversation with one of your colleague 
by asking her about her family. 
You might say, hey, Maria, how are you? 
How's your family doing? 
Did your youngest start school yet?


In this situation, the speaker asks a question about his co-worker's family.


Questions are a good way to get a conversation started.


Usually, small talk sticks to topics that we consider safe. 
In the United States, 
chatting about someone's family is generally a safe topic. 
Chatting about the weather is a safe topic. 
Chatting about food, or travel, or movies, are safe topics. 
Safe topics are ones where you can be pretty sure where you can be pretty sure 
that you will not upset, or offend the person, by talking about these topics.


In the US, we usually stay clear of certain topics, topics that we 
consider taboo or controversial, topics that could upset someone.


Some examples of taboos in the US are religion, politics and salary. 
It's best to avoid discussing these topics in a conversation, 
especially with someone you're trying to make a good impression with.


So, you would never say to a colleague in a conversation, 
how much money do you make in your job?


Perhaps, to help you make small talk, 
you should have a number of questions already prepared. 
That way, you're not tongue tied or unable to speak when you meet someone.


This brings up an important point regarding small talk or 
conversation in general, a lot of people are introverted or shy by nature. 
They feel uncomfortable talking about themselves especially to strangers. 
This is a perfectly normal thing.


However, if you have such a personality, 
you don't want this to stop you from having a conversation 
with someone who might possibly open a door to a future job.


You will need to try and find a way to overcome this personality obstacle.


In social situations, like meeting someone for the first time and feeling pressure 
to speak, asking questions is a good way to take the focus off you.


If you have a number of questions already prepared, this will also help 
take some of the stress away in these uncomfortable situations. 
Beforehand, write down a number of the questions that you can use in these 
Choose topics from the safe list we talked about earlier. 
Here are couple of examples, one how was your weekend? 
Did you do anything fun or interesting?


Two, the weather forecast looks very nice for this coming weekend. 
Do you have any plans? 
Or three, what restaurants would you recommend for lunch?


These are just a few examples. 
Try these out of few times on a friend or 
a family member to see if they work, and whether you need more practice.


Select the ones you think work well and throw out the ones that don't.


In this video, we've looked at the topic of Small Talk. 
We've examined some examples of it and discussed how it is relevant to networking.


Next, we'll play a game with appropriate phrases from a conversation.