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Module 5: Médias et méthodologie numérique

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Gestion Photos et vidéo

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Graphics, Photos and Video

Graphics

Good graphics add to the visual appeal of the newspaper, attract readers’ attention, and make stories more understandable. they help reporters’ stories, rather than take away from them.

Every graphic must have a purpose. Filling empty space is not a sufficient reason for using a graphic.

A graphic should enhance the reader or viewer’s understanding of the story, which means the editor must fully understand the story before designing or choosing a graphic to go along with it.

Use of Graphics

Graphic artists usually produce the visual images; the role of the editor is to conceptualize the graphic, find the information it should contain or illustrate, and ascertain its accuracy.

Graphics can convey basic facts or illustrate a process. Imagine you are reporting on air pollution in your country. A map could be used to show where the air is most unhealthy. An illustration could be used to show how air pollution affects the lungs. Both types of graphics work just as well for broadcast as they do for print.

Think of a graphic as a highway sign - the driver doesn’t get a chance to study it as they are driving, so the information has to be clear and easily absorbed.

Graphics, Photos and Video

Graphics

Whatever the medium in which it will be used, avoid graphics that are crammed with too much information. The reader or viewer should be able to look at the graphic and take away one basic idea.

Graphics need to be used transparently and accurately to enhance understanding.

Examples

Imagine you have a story that says a city’s annual budget is twice as large as it was 10 years ago. A bar graph charting the size of the budget for each of the last 10 years would be an easy way to make that clear.

In a story about city business development crowding out residents, you could list the number of apartments and office buildings in the area. However, it would be more effective to create a pie chart showing the relationship.

Photography

The more you shoot and the more adjustments you make based on what you see on the camera/phone screen, the more you’ll improve your shots.

Modern camera and camera phone (smart phones) sales continue to grow each year with millions of units flying off store shelves. The advantages of digital cameras over a traditional film camera are many, including:

• Take as many pictures as you want
• Review photos immediately
• Upload pictures anytime via the web
• The are portable and easy to use
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Resolution

When it pertains to the display of electronic data, resolution is a measurement of pixels that are available to the human eye. Computers have displays that can be adjusted to show more or less information on the screen.

When it comes to photographs, resolution refers to the number of pixels in an
image. If you have a high-resolution image for publication on a Web site, it
should be compressed. Compressing an image means using software to squeeze the image, omitting the pixels that aren’t necessary and making the file smaller without sacrificing the overall quality.

Pixels

The key to understanding digital photographs is all in the pixels.

Pixel is a mashed-up word meaning PICTure ELement and is usually imagined as a tiny square on a matrix overlay on a computer image. A pixel is the visual representation of data in a digital image or graphic. To picture this in your mind, think of a mosaic where a photograph is composed of hundreds or thousands of tiny squares.

Cameras store photographs as digital files. The more pixels in a photograph, the more bytes needed to store the picture.

Storage

A memory card is a critical component to digital photography: It's the thing that holds the pictures. Essentially it’s like a reusable disk for storage. The most popular types of flash memory cards for use in digital cameras are: Secure
Digital (SD), Compact Flash (CF), Memory Stick (MS), MultiMedia- Card (MMC), xD-Picture Card (xD) and SmartMedia (SM).

With camera phones you also have the option of saving the image to the phone, to a social media or photography app (application) or to a cloud storage facility, such as: Dropbox, Flickr, iCloud Photos, Amazon Photos, Adobe Revel, etc.
Some of these services are free and some require a subscription fee.

Photo Shoot Tips

Here are some tips to help with your photo shooting:

Hold the camera steady: Use two hands. be still when shooting
Automatic settings: Try these first then make adjustments
Fill the frame: Don’t leave too much head room in photos
Get closer: Move around to get the right angle
Lighting: Take advantage of natural light
Go vertical: If the subject is vertical turn the camera into a vertical position
Shoot action: Capture action moments when possible, avoid posing people

Graphics, Photos and Video

Photography

If you want to get more serious about photo editing on your computer, you can try Adobe Photoshop, Fotor, Picasa, etc. For photo editing on your smartphone there are different app's available such as, Photoshop express, Airbrush and Bonfire pro. Some of these editing applications are free and some require a subscription fee.

There are many software programs that will make editing digital photographs easy.

Whether you work on a Windows computer or a Mac, you should have a basic photo editing program installed already. You can learn how to use those programs to perform the most basic operations.

Editing Tips

No matter which software program or application you use, it’s a good idea to follow a few simple steps when editing your photos:

• Only edit a copy of the photo - not the original

• Crop the photo - omit unnecessary information

• Resize the picture – depending on what image size is required
Graphics, Photos and Video

Photography

Since journalism is about providing readers and viewers with information, the addition of photographs is fundamentally just good journalism.

Pictures are information, so if you’re a reporter, learn to take photos when you are on assignments.

This won’t replace the assignments when you need a professional but will supplement them by adding basic photos to all the stories that currently don’t have accompanying art. If you have a blog, it’s more important.

Citizen Journalists

So-called citizen journalists are increasingly using their mobile phones to capture photos if they witness a news event.

They may upload these photos to mobile photo-sharing and social networking services that enables its users to take pictures, and share them publicly or privately on the app, as well as through a variety of other social networking platforms, such as Flickr, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram.

They may also send them to online and national news organizations that welcome on-the-scene reports.



Video

For Example

Skilled journalists marry their words with video in order to tell a more powerful story.

Pictures are not just video wallpaper, they are an essential part of the story.

The visuals tell the “what” of the story. The words tell the “why.”

Synchronizing

Synchronizing words and pictures does not mean that reporters should simply describe what the viewer can see. Let’s say the video shows a farm truck driving down a dusty dirt road. There is no point in having a reporter say something obvious, such as, “The Robertsons live at the end of a long country road.”

Instead, the audio track should offer information that adds context and meaning to the picture. In this case, the reporter might say, “The drought has been so bad that the Robertsons haven’t had any crops to sell this year.”

For Example

Research has shown that viewers understand and remember stories much better when the words and video match, that is, when they tell the same basic story. When the video does not match the words, viewers tend to remember more of what they see than what they hear.

For example, a story about the effects of a major storm on a country’s fuel supplies. If the video shows only storm damage and its aftermath, the viewer might miss the central point that fuel supplies have been disrupted.

Graphics, Photos and Video

Video Types

Documentary

Documentary

When you’re starting out, there are essentially two types of video assignments:

• A documentary style video story
• A breaking news/news clip style

Either form requires you to approach it with more than an attitude that you’re just getting some video.

With a little more effort and planning, you can capture and produce great video, no matter the form.

Breaking News Style

For these types of video, you rarely know what the story will be in advance. You
simply know that news is happening or has happened and you want to capture
some essence of it on video.

You probably won’t get to the scene in time to capture the actual action. However, the reaction from witnesses and investigators as well as footage of the scene are well worth capturing.



Documentary Style

The best way to make a solid video story is to think about it the same way you think about writing a story. Indeed, it’s critical to think about how the video will tell the story.

Plan the shoot before you go out – construct an interesting video story
Vary the type of shots you will take –wide angle, close up, medium shots
Research the material - background, quotes, documentation

Once you envision what the story should say, it’s simply a matter of filling in the spots with the most appropriate footage.



Graphics, Photos and Video

Video Production

Tips

If you are interested in learning to shoot video, get comfortable before heading
out on assignment.

Shoot some footage at home of your family or friends and experiment with different types of shots. Practice capturing a mix of shots, recording audio and using different types of lighting.

Shooting basic video is not difficult but, it takes time and practice to get used to.

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Video Shooting Tips

Other important tips to remember:

• Be selective in shooting - you don’t want to waste time editing
• Avoid panning, zooming - stop recording when switching between shots
• Hold your shots - hold each shot for at least 15 seconds
• Be silent - the camera will pick up every sound you make
• Frame your subject - avoid static composition, keep the subject off center
• Short clips – most video stories are comprised of short clips edited together

The best way to improve your video shooting skills is to actually perform the editing - or sit with the person who will edit the video.

Graphics, Photos and Video

Video Production

Once you have captured video on your camera or smartphone, it’s time to
prepare it for others to see.

The magic of digital video is the simplicity with which you can edit and rearrange the order of your clips.

Software

It’s unlikely you’ll want to create a video story that plays the footage in the exact same order that you filmed it, so editing and arranging the clips will allow you to present the story just the way you want.

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Software

There are many different types of software and app's on the market which provide different levels of usability and functionality.

Examples for computer include: Videopad, Windows movie maker, Lightworks and ivsEdits.

Examples for smartphone applications include: AndroVid Video Editor, KineMaster, Magisto and Splice.
All of these can be used to add titles, music, voice overs, transitions and adjustments, to your work – and some also include templates and themes.