Photochemical can damage or kill plants how can this happened?
The eight classes of air pollutant are 1.oxides of carbon 2.sulfur3.Nitrogen4.VOC s 5.suspended particulate mather6.photochemical oxidants7.radioactive substance8.hazardos air pollutants
what about the dust from the earth road, smoke from slashed and burned agriculture?
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all the best
gracias a las actividades humanas se contamina el ambiente, como los químicos vertidos en el aire que se denominan como contaminantes primarios, si estos se juntan con otros se pueden llamar contaminantes secundarios, óxidos azufre compuestos, oxidantes, radiactivos, óxidos de carbono, son los que mas afectan al medio ambiente. la lluvia ácida es un contaminante secundario ya que este liquido va cargado con químicos con un alto porcentaje en su PH. Todos estos contaminantes son perjudiciales para la salud causando muchas enfermedades. ademas que esto debilitan la capa de ozono. aumentando así el calentamiento global.
Air pollution is caused by heavy industries e.g mining ,steel industries not forgetting agriculture.
How does air pollution affects human"s health?
Dust pollution comes mainly from the construction industry and related processes, such as concrete crushing, cement batching and road stone plants.
Human activities release a variety of substances into the biosphere, many of which negatively affect the environment. Pollutants discharged into the environment can accumulate in the air, water, or soil. Chemicals discharged into the air that have a direct impact on the environment are called primary pollutants. These primary pollutants sometimes react with other chemicals in the air to produce secondary pollutants.
A wide variety of chemicals and organisms are discharged into lakes, rivers and oceans daily. Left untreated, this sewage and industrial waste has a serious impact on the water quality, not only in the immediate area, but also downstream.
The eight classes of air pollutants are:
• oxides of carbon,
• volatile organic compounds,
• suspended particulate matter,
• photochemical oxidants,
• radioactive substances and
• hazardous air pollutants.
Oxides of carbon include carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).
Carbon monoxide, a primary pollutant, is mainly produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It is also present in cigarette smoke. The colorless, odorless gas is poisonous to air-breathing animals.
Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin, impeding delivery of oxygen to cells. This causes dizziness, nausea, drowsiness, and headaches. At high concentrations it can cause death. Carbon monoxide pollution from automobiles can be reduced through the use of catalytic converters and oxygenated fuels.
Carbon dioxide is produced by the complete combustion of fossil fuels. It is considered a greenhouse gas because it heats up the atmosphere by absorbing infrared radiation. As a result of this characteristic, excess amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may contribute to global warming.
Carbon dioxide can also react with water in the atmosphere and produce slightly acidic rain. Carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by limiting the amount of fossil fuels burned.
Oxides of sulfur include sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3). Sulfur oxides are primarily produced by the combustion of coal and oil. Oxides of sulfur have a characteristic rotten egg odor, and inhalation of them can lead to respiratory system damage. They react with atmospheric water to produce sulfuric acid, which precipitates as acid rain or acid fog. Acid rain is a secondary pollutant that acidifies lakes and streams, rendering the water unfit for aquatic life. It also corrodes metals, and dissolves limestone and marble structures.
Oxides of sulfur can be removed from industrial smokestack gases by "scrubbing" the emissions, by electrostatically precipitating the sulfur, by filtration or by combining them with water, thereby producing sulfuric acid which can be used commercially.
Oxides of nitrogen include: nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Nitric oxide is a clear, colorless gas formed during the combustion of fossil fuels. Nitrogen dioxide forms when nitric oxide reacts with atmospheric oxygen; the reddish-brown pungent gas is considered to be a secondary pollutant. Exposure to oxides of nitrogen can cause lung damage, aggravate asthma and bronchitis, and increase susceptibility to the flu and colds.
Nitrogen dioxide can combine with atmospheric water to form nitric acid, which is precipitated as acid rain. Nitrogen dioxide is also a key ingredient in the formation of photochemical smog, and nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas. Automobile emissions of these pollutants can be reduced by catalytic converters which convert them to molecular nitrogen and oxygen.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include hydrocarbons such as methane (CH4), propane (C3H8), and octane (C8H18), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) such as dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl 2F2). Hydrocarbons are released into the atmosphere in automobile exhaust and from the evaporation of gasoline. They contribute to the formation of photochemical smog.
Chlorofluorocarbons were used as propellants for aerosols and as refrigerants until it was discovered they can cause depletion of the protective ozone layer. Volatile organic compound emissions can be reduced by using vapor-recovery gasoline nozzles at service stations and by burning oxygenated gasoline in automobile engines.
Suspended particulate matter consists of tiny particles of dust, soot, asbestos, and salts, and of microscopic droplets of liquids such as sulfuric acid and pesticides.
Sources of these pollutants include the combustion of fossil fuel (e.g. diesel engines) and road and building construction activity.
Exposure to these particles can lead to respiratory irritation, reduction of lung capacity, lung cancer, and emphysema.
Photochemical oxidants are primarily produced during the formation of photochemical smog.
Ozone (O3) is a highly reactive, irritating gas that causes breathing problems, as well as eye, nose, and throat irritation. It also aggravates asthma, bronchitis, and heart disease. Ozone and other photochemical oxidants can damage or kill plants, reduce visibility, and degrade rubber, paint, and clothes.
Photochemical oxidants are secondary pollutants, and can be controlled by reducing the amount of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere.
Radioactive substances include radon-222, iodine-131, and strontium-90.
Radon is a gas produced during the decay of uranium that is naturally present in rocks and building materials made with these rocks. It is known to cause lung cancer in humans.
The other radioisotopes are produced by nuclear power plants (iodine-131) or are contained in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing (strontium-90). They can be introduced into the food chain through plants and become incorporated in the tissues of humans and other animals. Their ionizing radiation can produce cancers, especially those related to the thyroid and bone.
Hazardous air pollutants include benzene (C6H6) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).
Benzene is a common organic solvent with numerous industrial uses.
Carbon tetrachloride was formerly used as a solvent in the dry cleaning business. It is still used in industrial processes.
Exposure to these compounds can cause cancer, birth defects and central nervous system problems.