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Module 1: Styles de gestion

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Caractéristiques des styles de gestion

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Business Management - Characteristics of management styles

Characteristics of management styles

Each manager develops their own particular management style of
operating. IMAGE.

Whilst the functions and roles that managers have to perform follows a
fairly uniform path, the manner in which they implement and exercise these
various functions and roles varies from manager to manager. Each manager
develops their own particular management style of operating. However, it is
possible to see certain common characteristics in management styles
exhibited by managers and, as a result, it is possible to group or to
classify management styles into specific categories based on these common
characteristics.

The characteristics that may be used to distinguish between management
styles include:

Centralisation - degree of centralisation. This characteristic relates
to the distribution of power and authority within the organisation, whether
it is highly centralised and administered by a single or a small number of
managers or if it is highly decentralised and administered by a large
number of managers. The span of control (the number of employees and tasks
that the manager has responsibility for) is linked to this characteristic.
The more centralised the power base, then the greater the span of control.
The extent of the span of control can be seen in the organisational chart
and the number of managerial levels and the number of managers at each of
those levels.

Orientation. This characteristic relates to the extent to which the
manager is task-oriented as opposed to employee-oriented, that is, what the
manager sees as their core priority or responsibility. This characteristic
is used to categorise managers according to the priority they place on
getting the job done at any cost as opposed to taking into account the
impact that the tasks may have on the employees.

Motivation. This characteristic relates to the extent to which the
managers use purely material incentives, as opposed to non-material
incentives, when attempting to motivate employees to enhance or to increase
their performance levels or, simply, to remain with the organisation. This
characteristic also looks at the extent to which the manager rewards
individual employees, as opposed to groups or teams of employees, and also
rewards not only the output of employees but also their input into the
processes.

Decision-Making. This characteristic relates to the extent to which
the manager makes all decisions personally or allows the employees to have
some degree of input into the decision-making process. Some managers will
make all decisions themselves without any input from employees and, at the
other extreme, some managers will allow employees to make all the decisions
and will only make decisions in regard to timelines and resource levels and
allocations.

Attitude. This characteristic relates to the extent to which the
manager is concerned with the professional and the personal development of
the employees as opposed to simply treating the employee like a number to
be used accordingly. This characteristic looks at the degree to which the
manager adopts a holistic approach to the individual employee, adopts a
caring attitude and is concerned with both professional and personal
development.

Communication. This characteristic relates to the extent to which the
manager adopts open communication channels which are used for communicating
with other managers and employees as opposed to closed information giving
channels directed downwards from managers to employees. It also relates to
the specific mediums used within these communication channels, e.g. memos
as opposed to forums and discussions.

These characteristics may be used to distinguish between and to contrast
the various management styles that may be adopted by managers.

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