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The Range Payload - Lesson Summary

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Range: This refers to the distance that an aircraft can cover during a flight.Payload – This is the total weight for which an airline gets paid. It consists of passengers, cargo, etc.Technical breakdown of aircraft weight: This refers to the different aspects of weight from the manufacturers’ or airliner operator’s perspective.Aircraft weight as viewed by an aircraft manufacturer:- Maximum Ramp Weight (MRW) – The maximum weight that the landing gear can withstand- Max take-off weight (MTOW) – Weight that the aircraft is expected to lift off.- Maximum landing weight (MLW) – Weight to take the expected impact at landing.- Maximum zero fuel weight – all the aircraft component weight minus the fuel weight.Aircraft weight as viewed by an airliner operator: - Manufacturer’s empty weight (MEW) – These includes the standard items e.g. engine oil, toilet fluid, fire extinguisher, unusable fuel, etc.- It also comprises the operator items – crew + baggage, documents, seats, food and beverages, etc.Three types of Range:(1) Harmonic range – This refers to the range with the maximum possible payload.(2) Ferry range – This refers to the range with zero payload and including reserve fuel.(3) Gross still air range – This refers to the range assuming all the mission fuel is utilized for cruise flight alone.Factors Affecting the Range Payload Diagram(1) Flight altitude: At different altitudes, the aircraft has different specific range.(2) Speed(3) Type of fuel(4) Powerplant(5) Amount of reserve fuel to be carried.(6) En-route meteorological conditions.Environmental issues in Aircraft DesignThe two key environmental issues in aircraft design are noise pollution and air pollution.Air pollution – Means the emission from the aircraft exhaust system. The key emissions are CO2, NOx, CO and particulate matters. These emissions contribute greatly to global warming.Noise pollution – Is caused by:(a) Increased air resistance(b) Aerodynamic dragV-n Diagram: This is applicable only for symmetrical maneuvers in the vertical planes because the load factor-z has the highest numerical value while in symmetrical maneuvers the load factor-x and load factor-y remain constant with negligible numerical values.