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Vaccines - Lesson Summary

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The Immune System: Inflammation
• Acute inflammation
• Chronic inflammation
• Granulation tissue
• Foreign body reaction
• Fibrosis

Materials and the Immune System - materials in the body are equivalent to foreign invasions, the body has employed a range of interactions to counter this invasion.

The Complement System- a series of proteins circulating in the blood and bathing in fluids surrounding tissues. The proteins circulate in an inactive form, but in response to the recognition of molecular components of microorganisms, they become sequentially active. Working in a cascade where the binding of one protein promotes the binding of the next protein.

Three Pathways:
- Classical pathway
- Alternative pathway
- Lectin-mediated pathway


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Vaccine Types:
Live-attenuated Vaccines: Very strong immune response, storage conditions should be stringent, risky, Eg. Smallpox, Measles

Inactivated Vaccines: Killed germ, Lower response than live vaccines, may need several doses, Eg. HepA, Flu, Polio

Subunit, Recombinant, Polysaccharide, Conjugate Vaccines: Can be given to anyone, needs booster shots, Eg. HPV, HepB

Toxoid Vaccines: Use toxin, create immunity against the toxin and not the germ

Components of Immuno-isolated Implants:

Polymeric components:
- must be non-erodible
- must be mechanically stable
- must be biocompatible

Membranes:
- Hemodialysis membranes
- Weak polyelectrolytes
- Conformal
- Microporous

Matrices:
- Hydrogels
- Scaffolds