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Module 1: Plant Cell Bioreactors

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Plant Cell Bioreactors - Lesson Summary

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The Key Contents from this Module are:

Biotransformation is the process by which the functional groups of organic compounds are modified by living cells.

It can also be said to be the conversion of one chemical into another, i.e. a precursor into a final product using cell suspension as a catalyst. The biocatalyst can be plant cells growing or in a quiescent state, or an extract from such cells or a purified enzyme

The different types of Immobilization include:

Direct binding due to Natural Affinity
Physical retention within the framework of diverse pore size and permeability (entrapment)
Mixing with suitable materials, changing their consistency with temperature (embedding)
Connection via bi or polyfunctional reagent (cross-linking)
Covalent coupling on otherwise inert matrices

Plasmids are self-replicating, extrachromosomal DNAs maintained as independent molecule by ost of the bacterial genera. Plasmid DNA can be circular or linear in nature. The size of a plasmid varies from 1.5kb to 1500kb.

Plasmids are of two types:
1. Conjugative
2. Non-conjugative

Conjugative plasmids can mediate their own transfer between bacteria by the process of conjugation. They possess transfer and mobilizing regions to carry out the transfer function.

Non-conjugative plasmids are not self-transmissible but can be mobilized by conjugative plasmids that are present in the same cell.

The genetic variations necessary for crop improvement is generated through the following means:

Hybridization
Mutagenesis
Polyploidy
Plant cell cultivation
Somatic hybridization