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Historical and Literary Contexts

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Video 1: Historical and Literary Contexts
Hello and welcome to this week's lecture on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in this lecture, I'm going to talk. Briefly about the historical and literary content that are associated with this, uh, Gothic novel. We look at, um, the romantics as well, uh, as a philosophy, uh, they briefly and vivo, um, take a quick look at some discussion questions as well now. Uh, key historical events, um, That are associated with the God thing, a novel and it's right, are these, um, 17, 18, nine is considered to be the start of the French revolution. And it is an attempt of the French people to rid themselves of their absolute monarchy. So it is a kind of a radical political struggle, which is Seeking a lot of drastic change to the way the society is run British liberals. We're excited that the common people were standing up to the oppressors, but they quickly became disillusioned when the revolution became very bloody and its leaders became tired and to themselves. So across the English channel, great Britain and its liberals particularly were excited by the prospect. The fact that things are going to change for the better for the oppressed people, but then they became very disillusioned. The romantics particularly became the solution. Then the revolution became extremely wildland and the so-called leaders were becoming tyrants and dictators themselves. The dates, um, you feel look at the year, 1793 to 1794. There was this rain of. Terror under Rob a spare, which was unleashed on the country. Liberals who lost all hope for true justice and equality in that, in the ear. So. The kind of idealism that was associated with the revolution was shattered, um, of, for the, uh, romantics, especially the English romantics 1804. So the crowning of Napoleon as the emperor of. France all these are dates are interesting and significant because we somehow so CA uh, um, the idea of tear out that is depicted in the early Gothic fiction for the terror, um, you know, during the French app revolution. So some of the complications and complexities associated with the political, um, Are you deals are kind of separately connected with the rise of this kind of thing. Uh, literary, um, subpeona, which we call the Gothic. Now, um, the romantic writers were turning towards nature as an escape from the harsh realities of their worlds. Nature was someplace, but human journey did not rain. Um, so this nature worship is crucial. Both for the romantics as well as for the Gothic, not them. We can see a lot of extensive descriptions of nature in Gothic fiction and, um, nature scenes, uh, at Haven asked Willis, uh, you know, uh, a kind of a discourse, a topic and an entity which can provoke ideas of sublimity, um, in the person who was, um, Appreciating enjoying I'm enjoying these elements of nature. Now, the idea is that subject of nature is common to both the romantics, as well as the Gothic, uh, right. This, which is why you're discussing, um, the romantics here. Uh, and, and the connection with, uh, the Gothic novel is something that we should be aware of. The romantics were for the most part, this house liberals. Um, and we saw how, um, you know, during the French revolution, um, you know, the ideals of the revolution were shattered by the, um, uh, leaders who led the revolution and this kind of, um, this heart into, uh, liberals who are out watching them. Progression of the revolution. So there is a close connection between, um, the French revolution that a man thinks and the God thing, right. Does, uh, of course the Gothic kind of developed into something else as, as it was kind of a ridden and adapter, then reshaped and continue to be, um, you know, uh, you know, accommodated, um, in various ways in, in different centuries. Um, so that, but the. The essential idea of reacting to oppression in a particular way is a trajectory free. That continues to be one of the characteristics of got that friction now to get back to the idea of nature there, solitude in nature. Believing that the key to all emotional healing could be found in nature. Nature imagery is the most predominant feature of romantic, uh, literature. So, um, the idea of, um, isolation, um, you know, finding a peace in solitude, um, especially in the lab with nature is something that is. Very very strong in romantic literature, you can think about, well, it's wood, you know, Shelly heats and, um, the other representation of nature is varied and, uh, they all have a common theme of nature being somehow, um, Somehow a spirit, that guy, humanity, that kind of, uh, you know, uh, keeps the humans, um, you know, a company in India there is waste to nature imagery. It's a very prominent feature of romantic literature. Of course, the representation of nature in, in words, with this different to the representation of nature in, uh, say for example, um, Shelly, but. We do understand that nature is a strong spirit, which, which kind of walks hand in hand, but a human racist, the idea of, uh, the disenfranchised man is also a common, uh, principle that is treated in romantic literature. So, uh, it's a common topic, a common subject. Uh, so such men, um, the unfree men that is in franchise means somebody who is in chains, uh, metaphorically, and, um, this, uh, figure the disenfranchised or the change man finds himself unable to live in society. And this figure was usually sympathized with a lot and almost revealed in romantic literature. So this, um, I figure it's something we need to keep in mind. Then we also talk about, um, the garden, like Novo, baby find similar figures who are, um, well, literally and metaphorically. With reference to Frankenstein. Um, the disenfranchised men referred to figures, Wolf Frankenstein, and his screen. And they're both the same front tries what changed in some ways, the creature, the monster, because it's form keeps them from any human company. Um, she is. Boeing because of its very nature features so far are fine to look at. So he does. Um, so unlike his, um, you know, compact rates or unlike the rest of society, that he cannot relate to what, um, you know, anybody else. So he is changed by the very fact of his being and Frankenstein, the creator. The scientist is also changed because he feels, he eventually feels that he can not enjoy the company of his fellow man, because what he did through his experiments, because he created a monster and let it lose them, lose among society. He's unable to, um, have any kind of Franco with the rest of society, with his own family because of the complications, which arise from the acts of the monster. It's an example, um, you know, uh, This monster, literally, and metaphorically killed companions, um, that Frankenstein could have had he kills off, um, Ellsberg who could have been his wife. He kills off his friend. So he kills his brother. The father of Frankenstein dies because of these kind of miseries. So you can see how the monster is kind of eliminating his relations and his connections, but society in a very literal manner. So these are some of the ideas that we can think about in relation to the disenfranchisement, a concept that is treated very much in romantic literature, and which does get treated in different ways in Gothic fiction. So you can see how, um, the Gothic is connected to the romantic, um, uh, narrative in these ways. Nature being one. Um, the idea of the disenfranchisement in dance of nature, in all to think about how nature gets represented in the mysteries of your dog for Emily sent Albert violin code saying, Oh, but everybody, uh, they kind of appreciate a nature. There is an element of the picture Ascot painted in birds on the pages of the novel. In Frankenstein, we can see how the Arctic ways of beautifully described by the author.

Video 2: Gothic Literature
So, uh, how do we seek out the literature? The literature is an offshoot. It's a branch of romantic literature, but then, um, over the course of time, it has come into its own. It has its own, um, What are you writing across the globe? So it has become a kind of an independent of a domain of literature, but God does put a spin on the romantic idea of nature, worship and nature imagery. And as I have been discussing so far. One of the ways in which you can explore the team of nature in Gothic fiction is to kind of, um, perceive how, uh, con comprehend, how, um, you know, nature is represented and to what effect, what are the functions of nature, um, that is used in a particular novel, what effect does say for her, for example, Uh, the representation of nature, half on Emily's and Auburn in the ministries of adults, what is the role of nature in Frankenstein? What effect does it have on the monsters, Frankenstein and our other cats? So these are some of the ways in which you, you can try to kind of seek the purpose of nature in Gothic fiction. Now mood is also connected to the ambiance, the setting and the physical setting as well. So the most common feature of Gothic lecture is the indication of mood to weather. When bad things are going to happen in a Gothic novel, the reader knows it because there is inevitably a storm outside. So, um, The storm is particularly, uh, you know, uh, easy for us to kind of understand the relationship between, um, you know, the external weather and the internal mood of the novel, sort of when things are going to take a turn for the worst in a novel, uh, you can see the writer making that kind of, um, foreshadowing transparent by having a storm, uh, really. White art night, um, uh, then in a particular moment in the novel. So, um, that kind of connection is something that we have read over the course of literature. You can, you can think about Shakespeare's King layer, where, um, when Lear is wandering on the metals, you know, from the rest of his family, You know, there's a big raging stump outside and is caught in the stone. So the internal turbulence of Leah is kind of reflected externally through that wild stomps, likewise, in a Gothic novel, then things that, you know, then things are going to get ugly. Nature itself is wild and turbulent and stormy. As we have discussed earlier, the idea of storm is used to kind of set up the appeal or set up the appearance of it, of the monster. So when Frankenstein is about the encounters feature in the mountains, VV can see the storm kind of raging, uh, and Frankenstein. Um, What's his seat. This is a quote from the novel. Um, I created my seat and walked on. Although the darkness it's, don't increase every minute and found the burst with a terrific crush over my head. We've had flashes of lightning. Dassel my eyes eliminating the Lake, making it appear like a last sheet of fire. I perceived in the gloom of figure, which stole from behind a clump of trees near me, I stood fix blazing gazing, intently, a flash of lightning eliminated that the object and discover its shape. Langley to me is a gigantic stager. So many of its aspect, more hideous dare belongs to humanity. So you can see how. The appearance of the knee of the feature is connected to the appearance of a monstrous, um, character of nature. So Honda enlightening, um, happens. And then, um, and, and Tundra enlightening is also used to kind of eliminate, um, the nature and character of the monster. Um, and it's gigantic just as nature is kind of boundless and massive. And, um, lightning kind of, you know, uh, lightens up the physique of the monster for Frankenstein, for Frankenstein as well for us, the readers. And we see it as we, um, you know, maybe they're seeing it with a Frankenstein, the monster that he has created. And he says that it's more hideous. It's extremely hideous, it's deformed, and it it's unlike the human. Uh, great. So, um, what the mood. And, and the dramatic nature of the story is enhanced by this, um, setup of the stone. Now, when you're talking about the idea of nature, they're talking about the idea of the rural life, um, and how, um, ideal license.In nature becomes, we also need to focus on the set of characters called the delay CS and Frankenstein. So these figures are cottagers and Frankenstein lives for almost a year, uh, in a hovel, um, near the delay seas. And these figures are important because they teach them how to kind of live a life very simply. And Frankenstein looks at this family and kind of envies, um, the love that's there in that family, the compassion. And he also tries to help them out, um, you know, very subtly without letting them know for Greg a part of his life. Um, you know, that, which he spends with the delays. So. This set of characters are important because it idealizes the election. Um, the life spent in, um, simplicity in close association with nature. So the greatest spends a year living in a hovel joint of the delay. And he would just a family and the family has a blind Eric and he has a daughter at got the son, Felix and feelings. Felix's fiance, staffy, and he kind of watches them through a chink in the wall from the delay, sees the creature learns, um, familiar, love, love that is found in a family and most important language. He learns. By looking at the speech of these cottages. Eventually he decides that this slumming family, the cottage might be his best opportunity for sanctuary within the cruel world. One day when I got the Felix and Saffia out, he entails the cartridge and introduces himself to the patriarch health and friendship, just as delay seek and concludes I'm blind and cannot judge of your company. But there's something in your words, which persuades me, that you are sincere and his children picked on. Felix pulls the creature from his father's legs and beats him at the stake all without having heard creature, a girl word that's pointing solely to his appearance. So we have a poignancy in the story. So the cottages are the means through which the creature learns how to speak. Like it tells a story and how to socialize the single, the most important factor in making the creature long for human company. And then his fame for actor. There that drives him to murder so that there are extremes of emotion for walked by this particular set of people. On the one hand, they make a Frankenstein long to have a family of its own. They make some frankincense, want to socialize, want a laugh, but at the same time, when he's rejected from this family by this family, He becomes actorly, um, you know, a full of despair and he wants to kind of re vengeance on society. So as I said, the cottagers very well, the cottages is an important element of the romantic movement. Um, the cartridge becomes idolized in the poetry of, um, what's what they've become. People with the best, um, you know, uh, generosity, the most compassion and, and they, they are ideals. Um, but in this novel, uh, you know, you can see a different side of that kind of idealism when he's kicked out by Felix, um, who is trying to protect his father because he hasn't heard, um, Frank, he, because she hasn't heard of Frankenstein's creature speak. Speak to his father. So he kind of tries to, um, save his father when he, when he sees him kneeling by the side of his father. No, there are a few questions you might want to think about in relation to Frankenstein. Um, The novel, you can analyze the character development of Victor Frankenstein and the creature you can trace the trajectory of. I can stand from his childhood to the moment where he chases, um, the monster that he has created. So you can do a kind of an analysis of all the motivations that drive him. To be the man that he is, and you can also do a character sketch of the creature, uh, and talk about, um, how the creature changes, um, by, by, um, you know, uh, Through his interactions with society, how he initially knowns for Frankenstein's attention and then how he kind of is repelled constantly. And then he seeks vengeance. So these are some of the things that you got to keep in mind. You can also think about the use of the other characters. What function do they serve, uh, in this, uh, novel and think about, uh, Robert Walton, um, His silent sister, you can think about, uh, Hendry Frankenstein's best friend Elizabeth and so on, and you can kind of see shout their function within the novel. Um, you can also compare and contrast Frankenstein the novel hardest, lost the work by Milton and others. Lots of literature, perhaps Dracula and other. Got the section as well. So you can see what, how got this Novelis and how different it is to the other works that you find across the period. You can also identify and analyze the latest literary devices, such as foreshadowing, suspense, exposition, climax, and foils. Um, for shadowing is a vague key motif. Motif suspense and ex suspense is also a motif of got the fiction. Then you could see how exposition is set up. The climate. Max is, um, you know, illustrated for the reader and foils, you know, Frankenstein is a foil for Robert Walton, frankincense of oil for the creature himself. So you can see how, um, you know, Dublin is used in got infection, uh, how doubles perform and function in the novel. So, um, that kind of duality is interesting to explore too. Uh, you can, uh, understand the significance of the subtitle, the modern from a test. The modern promise theory, kind of links this novel to the idea of the Promethean legend and how from the us, the Titan stalled fly from the gods and you can connect it to Frankenstein. And, but Walden are they being saved yesterday? Mandate does the enterprise succeed? If it doesn't succeed, why does it not succeed? What are the implications, uh, of this kind of, uh, failures? For, um, you know, the rest of society, how does, um, the novel kind of, uh, uh, assess, um, the triumphs that are happening in society in relation to science, um, and, and, uh, why is the novel not. It's trying to appreciate science in this way. Um, so this has some of the questions you might think about, and you can also, um, finally debate the culpability of the two main campus are in both sides of the issues of the domain campus would be Frankenstein, the father and the monster created by Frankenstein. You can argue, um, you know, uh, the righteousness or the, or the evil nature of their actions, uh, and, and see how justified they are in what they have done. Thank you for watching. I'll continue in the next session.