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The Gothic Contexts

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Video 1: Trail of Frankenstein
hello and welcome to week three of the popular Gothic novel course in this week. I'm going to talk about Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. In particular, I'm going to talk about the context, which led to the writing of this fantastic fiction. Mary Shelley was born married God van. And she was the daughter of the radical philosopher, William Godwin, who described her as singularly gold, uh, which means, um, you know, uniquely gold. She was extraordinary, uh, yeah, in some respects and somewhat of an incurious and apt to mind, she had an independent mind, which was, um, Kind of had its own mechanisms. So thinking through things and she was very, very active. Um, and Jile, uh, with regard to rational thinking. She was, the doctor had mentioned William Goldman and God William Godwin was a very famous, um, uh, in, in that period. And he was a social philosopher, a political journalist and a religious dissent. So you can see the singularity of Mary Shelley, uh, and its origins, uh, in, in the father. Um, Figure. And he anticipated the English romantic literary movement. So, uh, she had a syntactic, uh, parents who were very well read who way independent thing. Doesn't let the centers, as you can see, he was a religious dissenter. And so you can see the kind of into lenses on Mary Shelley. Um, and we also know if you read, um, Mary Shelley's biography to the side of is very, very influential and that, uh, he encouraged Mary's avid leading. Um, so she had a lot of very, very influential, um, impact on her from a very, very early age. Let's look at her mother, her mother was narrowing the stone craft and she was the one who goes away indication of the rights of woman, which was a groundbreaking, a radical text of literature, which, which can be classified as one of the search feminist texts. Um, one of the first texts, which talked about human rights issues, um, of the female gender. So you can see. See what kind of mother she had. And unfortunately her mother died days after her, but these, these two figures, the mother and the father were well known writers of the day. Very, very influential and independent minded figures. And now let's look at the husband. Who is Mary Percy? Shelley's Mary Wollstonecraft, Godwin married a Percy Shelley and Shelley praise, the irresistible, wildness, and sublimity of her feelings. So you can see the kind of, um, Similarity judgment in some ways. Well, Percy Shelley calls her hair, uh, wild, um, you know, it was systemically wild and you can see the Fatah calling her singularly goal. So, so you can see her. As a woman who had a baby that he see us is freak of mind, very active and feel streak of mine, which classical and irresistible and, um, Mary and Mary Shelley and Percy, uh, married in, uh, December, 1816. So the context is there for you on the slide and. Sublimity of her feelings is also very interesting the way, plus he describes her feelings as a, as provoking some kind of all on the person in front of her. So we see a chart, um, being stretched, uh, very interestingly by all these figures who knew her very closely and, um, you know, The ideal is why is this the white of singularity and, uh, um, the intensity or ceilings, uh, all in March. When we want to think about Mary Wollstonecraft, Shelley now, uh, They have the title page Frankenstein or the model from the theist, which, uh, was published in 1818. And, um, there is a reference to paradise lost on the title page. Um, does that request the Neko from my claim to make, uh, me man? Did I solve the, from darkness? See the voice, which is rebelling, which is questioning the Nico on the title page. And so it's a fairly unique and what Gabe, but this text is going to be the subject of this lecture, uh, today. So, um, A ghost writing contest contest on a stormy June night in 1816 inspired Frankenstein. And we just often are, um, two of science fiction as well. So there are two things, um, in, in this quotation that I've mentioned on this leg, one is a ghost writing context, uh, context, and the other is, um, science fiction. So, um, Two labels immediately come to mind. When we think about Frankenstein, one has got like the other science fiction and, um, it enlarged that there is a kind of a collapse of these labels with regard to this narrative. And this narrative was a war out of a writing contest. So let's see who kind of, um, you know, initiated it or what happened. Why when Mary Shelley, uh, Composed Frankenstein in 1816 at Lake Geneva. She was staying with a lot by then John Polidori Byron's position, Claire Claremont, um, who is, uh, Shelley's half sister and Percy Shelley. So they all stayed together at Lake Geneva and it was at this, um, setting in 1816 that, um, Frankenstein was apparently composed. So, um, this is another contemporary image, a 19th century image of, um, uh, that, uh, Willa de adapting, where they stayed. Um, and this is also a contemporary image contemporary as now. And this one is a 19th century. So it is in this way. Byron, Mary and Cassie, Shelley, Claire, Claire, Claire Kmart. And Polidori told each of the ghost stories to pass the time, uh, in 1816. And one of the stories, um, you know, uh, that was, uh, written out of this context, um, contest was, uh, was, uh, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. The older, no debt, um, uh, poly Doris regular was also the product of this kind of ghost writing contest. So they kind of spend this group of literati easily can be seekers, um, Byron and Shelley. They, they passed the time by telling each of the ghost stories and one evening, um, horror appointments run out and let's see what the corn is. Um, so threads and versus from Samuel Taylor Coleridge or Christy bill and. Well, I'm English. The character general theme is it's a woman, but it's actually a Lamea or this guy, sup and, um, seeks both the spiritual and physical possession of the beautiful innocent plus. So, um, the con. Text for this poem. Um, it's that, um, you know, a disguise setup and it's trying to possess a very innocent, young, beautiful young woman Cristobal and Percy Shelley was clearly affected by the claustrophobic in mind. And they all private together in that, um, in that Wheeler, Dotty and hypnotic power of violence meeting the point, um, kind of made him to sleep a little screaming apparently. So. That was the environment, the atmosphere in which, um, all these, uh, figures took inspiration. So they own words. So it is, um, apparently Lord Byron, who kind of throws the Gunflint. He is the one who, um, you know, kind of initiate this competition, the goals, uh, writing competition, um, ghost stories, writing competition. And, um, he is the one who apparently gave the white. Spark that even novel Frankenstein, um, you know, its origin and it was his suggestion on one evening, I really do a daddy. I said, turned it like slicker within the house and lightning flashed across the surfaces or the Lake outside that those precedents should turn their hands to the writing of those stories. So what is very clear is that. This is not, um, this is not great Britain, they're holidaying, and it is apparently a very, very theatre, summer English. Lots of catastrophe is happening, um, you know, uh, in several places and there's a lightning in natural elements and nothing. Friendly and, um, they are passing the time, um, these friends of having the time telling each other supernatural stories. And at this moment on one evening, uh, one, um, bizarre evening, um, you know, Biden says let's all write stories, those stories to pass the time. So, um, the land is foreign. The atmosphere is, uh, uh, is in its extreme and the, in terms of the natural elements. So all these elements in them, in themselves kind of create an effect on the people who are already telling each other literacies, um, supernatural, uh, not devs to pass the time and in this heady, cauldron things and impacts and effects. Frankenstein. Let's now look at some of the associated topics which were discussed in that Villa, the adapting among these friends. And once again, um, The contacts or the atmosphere is important because there's Tundra and lightning rolling down from the mountains across the Lake. So, um, nature is, um, in its out a white mood, a yeah. Is of something that we need to kind of, um, you know, Uh, hang on to vending, want to think about the origin of the novel Frankenstein? So the candlelit in TVO, the Villa became the hall two discussions of not only narratives, but also to subjects such as galvanism and the principles of animation bringing. Uh, life back, um, to inanimate things, uh, with Polidori is medical knowledge. We should remember Polidori Byron's physician and, uh, he brings the medical knowledge to the table and, uh, there is. The science, which is balancing out, uh, uh, the most speculated imaginations of Byron and Shelley. So they're talking about, uh, literary narratives of God thick up. They're talking about Galvanise and they're talking about animation, um, bringing Les back to the dead. So the, these topics are related to. Even if there is science on one side and supernatural subjects on the other spiritual stuff on the other. So, um, it can I think about, uh, these, uh, discussions as, um, atmosphere as the Gothic context for Frankenstein.

Video 2: Gothic context of Frankenstein
Now let's see what, um, Shelly near Shelley herself had to see about this kind of, uh, environment. And she says is Mary Shelley's words. And she says, I called many along with the conversations with Lord Biden and Shelley, which I was at devout, nearly silent is enough. Does she use kind of listening to the conversation that Shelley and Byron quietly, and she is absorbing the subjects, which are being talked about and doing one of these raise philosophy documents we discussed and among others, the nature of the principle of life, age of life itself was also talked about, and that there was any probability as it's ever been discovered and communicate the idea of how. Nick's life, how to viewed life. Um, you know, that principle is also being about and how, uh, could it possibly be discovered and how could that message be communicated that discovery with hostile. And so these are some of the subjects that they are talking about. And we know, because we have read Frankenstein, we knew that all these topics are also being, um, literary, um, you know, kind of fun. All these topics are being also discussed in the novel that how that spark of life can be and, and did kind of, um, you know, uh, was discovered and all these are put into practice by the central character Frankenstein in history of, um, the monster. Uh, so you can see where maybe, uh, Shelly could have drawn on, uh, with respect to those, uh, literally this course. Of the principle of fly. The spark for this dispose of life could have gone back to these discussions. And, um, they talked of experiments at dr. Darwin there means vitamins and Shelly. They talked about the experience Garmin and who apparently a preserved a piece of them, silly in a glass. He's still by some extraordinary means that began o move at one motion. o it kind of took on a license at home. And there is motion in that, a city in that piece of focus city. So you can see how I'm interested. Um, People then were about how to create lies, how to kind of act as God, which Frankenstein does. And you can see in the connection to the, um, Well, the donation from paradise lost, uh, where, uh, God is being questioned and asked. Did I ask the, to make me, did I ask you to meet me? So all these questions, um, you know, the idea of creation is as kind of, uh, discussed in this literary texts, um, of Frankenstein. 1816 the year in vetch. Um, these friends holiday in, um, uh, Lake Geneva where they spend their time in a village near Dottie is known as the year without a summer, uh, because, um, It was, uh, as I said, in terms of it's bad. Yeah. It was really bizarre. And yeah, that aren't Drexel incidents, apparently like Ken was interrupting in India leisure. So, uh, in terms of the climate is really unsettling. It's macabre and, um, That year, that summer became the perfect backdrop to the telling was a bleak for the telling of bleak and doom Laden got the tails.So, um, there is an external stimulus that I just think needs to be reinforced when we look at the matter of surrounding the origin of Frankenstein. So by now, uh, there H here about the social socials of Mary's imagination that produced Frankenstein one is galvanism. Um, the other is, um, the idea of, you know, the spark of life and how it could animate things and, uh, Plus there is this, um, Tundra storms going outside and there's candlelight within Some things done, um, influences on Mary's imagination. So all these deep roots in imagination and found its way into Frankenstein. So I'm meaning to talk a little bit more about galvanism because that idea is keep on recurring and conversations around, uh, Gothic. Context of front and stone. What does Galvin galvanism and what is dope? Story. So Shannon was inspired by the concept of, and the idea that scientists could use electricity to stimulate all we starting life. And, and where did we get this name? Galvanism from? So it was named after a Luigi Galvani and Italian doctor. And the concept was, um, you know, Put together after guideline, he was able to make a frogs legs Twitch when he hooked the animal up to an electric char. So the ideals giving electricity and bringing out life back to the dead is associated with this notion of galvanism. So electricity was a new and barely understood force when Galvani performed his experiments on dissected animals during the late 18th century. So, um, this discussion of galvanism on the part of Shelley and Byron, and we had, um, the doctor, the physician Polidori as well in 1816 with them. So all these kinds of scientific and Cedar scientific concepts had a deep influence on nearly Shelly. And this is important because we know that, uh, Frankenstein. Hook this monster monster together from disparate parts. So I guess putting together things and stitching it back and giving it life is a fairly, very interesting concept. And there, and it is connected to the subjects such as these galleries and animation, which were being kind of hockey disgust during the 18th century, during the end of the 18th century. There was a dr. Garvin mentioned the, um, early on, and we need to remember that that was Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin. It was DACA in rice, ms. Garvin, grandfather of Charles Darwin. And he is the medical or his, she was the racing was medical doctor. I announced what missing public. And he ate a lot of lectures on anatomy, um, in the center of his own home. Um, so, um, The topics of interest with regard to not to me was also important to Shelly Shelly. No, they're talking about. The energy adaptive. We've talked about, you know, galvanism animation, we've talked about the weather, the really wild weather during the, uh, during 18, 16 and the year without a summer. So we've talked about all these, um, connected ideas. Um, the older need to think about, uh, graveyards, uh, the image and the. in the late 18th century would also have had a great incidence on Mary Shelley for these reasons because majorly grew up during the era of the body snatchers. In other words, what is where in fact, um, there were not enough dead bodies of murders available for doctors or for medical students. Um, and so, uh, what they had to do was, um, the doctors had the pig gangs of body snatchers and they would pick up on the freshly Berry. Yeah. And, um, handed over to the doctors, the medical students are for a payment. So that's how the students got sufficient bodies in order for them to do though, uh, examination the section and learn about the human anatomy. The graveyard is also very important setting for Mary and Shelley, because then they had big core thing. The apparently often NetApp and the short chair of the old center cross with a large parish and many dads with their own. Yeah. So this was a Gregory, which was good, arguably lonely. And it had a local reputation, um, as, as, as a favorite place for body snatchers. So Mary Shelley would have known this because she had alcohol close in trust vicinity to this particular church. Yeah. So, um, The idea of body snatching the idea of murders, bodies, being a sound, I guess, stealing bodies and telling them to doctors for medical experiments, all these are important elements, which would have said, um, Mary Shelly's imagination and, uh, all of this would have contributed to this structuring off, um, her very, very radical Gothic tale Frankenstein. Now, um, the lights, Paul I, the game two of writing short stories itself in two ways, sickness in text, one is named Shelley's Frankenstein. The other is Polidori is the one higher, um, atail which influenced. Bram Stoker's novel, regular from Goodstein is Amanda, um, a transgression and it's a cautionary tale about the dangers of science, as well as, um, it's a cautionary tale, which kind of, uh, asks an individual to take responsibility for his or her actions. So it's a very, um, interesting, uh, Can be multiple purposes, uh, embedded in it. And, uh, I have an image, um, of the manuscript drafted Frankenstein and, um, uh, on the margins, we can see Shelly's comments. Apparently it is believed that Chile, uh, was, um, Chile. It kind of had an influence of about a full tossing words in this novel. Shelly is husband Percy Shelley. So he is supposed to have kind of changed about 4,000 words in patients and mobile, the minor influence Mary Shelley. Um, what did she. Say about, um, the origins of her work Frankenstein. She says, I busied myself to think of a story, a story to rival those, which had excited us to this task. Do you want it to be and compete really seriously, um, and produce a story that would kind of like dread Drake, um, to the heart of the person who's reading it. So she says one of which. Speak to the ms. Cheetah spheres of our nature and awaken truly Hora one to meet the leader director, look around to cuddle the blood and Quicken the BDS of the heart. So she did want to kind of provoke a particular set of emotions on the part of the reader. Through this text. And she says that this text would kind of speak to the mysterious fears of, of our major something, um, you know, mysterious about which we used to kind of reach the, uh, you should kind of, you know, be frightened about. And, um, She also decided to kind of provoke Cora in the minds of the reader, something that would really cuddle the blog and create spanking link moments on the feeder and quick, and the pace of the heart. So she is really worse. Um, you know, uh, ask a producing, um, of really macabre, uh, really scary Gothic Text. And so she had the Gothic genre in her mind. Then she was thinking about this structure and contents of this story. Perfect. If you think about this as the intention of the writer and the ideal sphere, the mischief mischievous is very important because one of the purposes of Gothic fiction is to kind of grow fear. It's very basic, uh, um, um, you know, intention on the part of the Gothic texts. Yeah. Feel is a primitive fear, which isn't everybody. Um, so we'll address that, which is in heart of popular kind of it's because of this. Um, because every individual is capable of being scared because fear is, uh, you know, a primary, a permit, uh, quality, and, um, chief Shelly Neisha is trying to address which that kind of primitive spark in every human being. Oh, these talks, no, this group, um, had been having, if we kind of think about it, know, um, the idea of, um, galvanism animation, um, Gothic quick tree, you know, to just close to building grant, uh, by Byron, which. You scared, please get Shelly and all this ghost writing competition and all these tops about all these talks at the Wella. Dear daddy, continue this, the weather outside for me stormy. And I told falling one of these conversations that Mary had, the nightmare that gave rise to the central idea of front and center of the visit particular moment during this day. Led to the creation of Frankenstein because she kind of has a dream about an incident that he incident in the novel. And then I say it itself is created because of all these external incidents, including the Stromae wild weather, as well as the wild subjects that are being discussed. So, um, there's a symbolic, as soon as the literal manifestation of the wild, um, in those days, uh, leading up to the writing of Frankenstein.And this quotation as by Mary herself, may Shelly. And she looked this in the 1831 process to the book. And, um, let's see what she has to say night when the poems, Oh, literally, if you look at this passage, you know, it has a lot of, um, There was such of the literary Nightwing. The pong hot wind is an interesting word, reading and waxing. It's like the moon Nightwing, the Congress talk. And even the witching hour had gone by before we retired to wrestle, they go to bed really late. When I place my head on my pillow, I did not sleep nor could I be set to think my imagination unbidden processed and guided me. Gifting the success of images that arose in my mind, the vividness far beyond the usual bounds of reverie, I saw the shot eyes, but acute mental vision. I saw the pale student of the unhallowed arts kneeling beside the thing he had put together. I saw the hideous fantasy of a man stretched out, and then on the working of some powerful engine show signs of life and still with an uneasy, half white, the motion. So, this is the nightmare is the nightmare. The scene that comes to her mind is that, um, you know, the hideous image of a man stretched out and on the working of some powerful engine showing signs of life and still then an easy half white motion to cheat kind of dreams that really key moment of the day. They're coming back to life bonding, kind of, you know, given that principle of life, that spark of life. Um, and we have a reference to student, the medical student as well, who was kind of kneeling by, um, that, uh, thing, which is going to get alive from the hands of the students. So this is being trumped by Mary, and this is born out of her imagination, which is, um, which is kind of giving her a pain. She yelled vivid picture. Um, And we know what, what led to this kind of a nightmare. And you can see how the story seems to kind of come into the mind of, uh, Mary Shelley it's, it's born out of instinct. It comes deep within the recesses of the human mind. So the butt of the story is not kind of rational. I'm not doing any kind of rational process. Uh, it is more of this, um, cauldron of imagination, which was all of that I, that pantry doesn't seem to have any control. So if this imagination comes unbidden without any, um, seeking of it, uh, on the writer's part on Mary's part eight processes her, so the spark of creativity is kind of a spirit, which possesses the writer.