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Module 1: Gothic Symbolism and Rebellion

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Gothic Subtexts; Madness and Femininity

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Video 1: Bluebeard Tale and Jane Eyre
Hello and welcome to week six lectures on Jane Eyre in today's session, I'm going to talk about a particular Gothic subtext in relation to a tale called Bluebeard. Then I will discuss the issue of madness, the notion of femininity in relation to the Gothic nodded off Jane Eyre. In the previous lecture, I discussed how narratives of the macabre Nat are good because of the bizarre and the dark, but very popular in The time in which the novel was seduced, which was early 19th century. Now this popularity. Okay. And also be accurate addicted to child's paroled, a French folklorist and fairy tale writer in the late 16 hundreds. Harold gripped Europe in Britain with gruesome fairy tales and, but did with lessons for social behavior. Bronte alludes to Perrault's most gruesome tale. Bluebeard ask Jane tours one field for the first time, perhaps also through the naming of Jane's French instructor, Madam Pedro, in the previous lecture. I talked about how Natalie. Yeah, that was of great rubbers were very popular. And how people bought into those narratives and consumed them avidly and via told dark popularity for the dark matter was also set in motion by a figure called Charles Perrault, who was a French folklorist and a fairytale writer. And. This fairy tale was yeah. To teach. Lessons for good behavior, good social behavior. And in Jane Eyre, a particular fairy tale is alluded to by the central female character that is Jane and that tale relates to the tale of the Bluebeard and Jean, when she is taken through tone field hall, when she is given a tour. She makes an illusion to that. So there are references in the narrative of Jane Eyre, which connects the story with this gruesome fairy tale. Now, this is the exact moment in the story where we come across that reference. Dan is insight on field hall and she is, um, being led through the hole by mrs. Fairfax, the housekeeper Fairfax stayed behind a moment to Fasten the truck door. I, but didn't have grouping found the outlet from the attic and proceeded to descend the narrow Garrett staircase. I lingered in the lawn passage to which this led front and back rooms. Okay. Of the story narrow lo and dim. It's only one little window at the end. And looking with it's two rows of small black doors. All sharp, like a Cardot in some Bluebeard's castle. So that's the reference, um, that we are going to discuss in a little bit of detail. Now, uh, uh, first reading this passage itself will tell the reader that this is a Gothic moment in the story. Um, the castle is not very inviting. Phone. Field hall becomes a Casa like a space for the visitor. The trap door, the uptake, narrow staircase, uh, the way in which the heat only lingers, um, as all got the Caroline's do in passages, within Casals, um, the repetition of the word narrow small and dim, not very well lit a small window, uh, giving us, uh, yeah, a lot of impression. Um, That this is a space of incarceration. Um, a shocked this black door symbolically suggesting, um, bleakness and gloominess. And at the end end of this passage, there is this reference to the gruesome fair tale, um, of the blue beard. Now, let's see what this tint is about. Blue beard was a hideously ugly man who persuaded his neighbors, youngest daughter to marry him. She's settled in his remote foot press with the help of an elderly made. He left for business one day and gave his new wife, the keys to all of the doors and windows in his secret of crossover. This gift came with a warning, not to open one particular door left. She will receive his Rob. We also did consumes the young woman and she opens the door to find the bodies of Bluebeard's. Ex-wives hanging around the room drenched in blood. So this is a perfectly macabre, gruesome Gothic tale. Um, you can see that, uh, the right it's a classic Gothic trope in this tale. Uh, there is, um, this man called Bluebeard who's extremely ugly. He convinces the neighbor too. Um, give his, uh, daughter in marriage to him and there's just an elderly made to look after the house. And one fine day, he gives stuff in the keys of the house, to this new wife and us, her not to open one particular door. Um, and of course she doesn't. Obey. She is filled with curiosity and she opens that particular door to find the, uh, dead bodies of, um, Bluebeard's ex-wives. So this is the reference that Jane makes when she is resisting, I think, in the hall. So you can see how, um, the setting. In itself suggests an entire matter dope and not a dope of, um, gruesome depth and the idea of, um, incarceration and a particularly evil male figure who is orchestrating this entire, um, scenario. Jane has all these narratives, um, ask Karthik Subutex. In her psyche when she is, uh, with the thing phone, call it continue with the tan of the blue beard. Libya comes home just before she escapes or the wife's brother to rescue her by killing Bluebeard upon his arrival. This tail parallel, strange relationship with Rochester in a multitude of ways. What Bluebeard's ex-wives and Bertha and Jane Eyre are locked away from society. Emphasizing the Victorian ideals. Woman's obedience to the man named about that. No, Bluebeard's wife listen to their orders. Both rebel and find themselves punished for breaks, patriarchal standards. So on the one, it can be half the tail of the new beer resolved, uh, plea with the brothers rescue doing, um, the wife from the clutches of blue beard who is killed by the brothers. And what is significant to us in terms of the blue BIA tail is dark. There is a parallel between this gruesome fairy tale, um, and this 19th century novel Jane Eyre, there is a kind of a tradition of continuously. Especially in relation to how the female is betrayed within big Casa, like domestic ups. So, uh, what the critique here is trying to do is compare the wife of Bluebeard the latest, the newest wife of Bluebeard with, um, Jane and Bertha. Bertha, of course, the first wife of Rochester is literally locked away by Waterstone. She's locked away from society. Nobody knows her existence. She is for all intents and purposes, debts to the world. She is absent signifier. Whereas Jean though, she is very much precedent. Um, she is also in a sense within the power of Rochester, who is her master, who is her employer and who is, um, who has a lot of control over Jane Eyre. Emotionally and physically. So, uh, Janet also refused to listen to this master figure Rochester, but that escapes constantly from her prison, which is within, um, Twinfield hall. She escapes, um, her drill and, um, twice to attack as several people in the household. And Jenna also escaped Rochester's, um, power by fleeing Dawn hall at Dawn feed hole. The particular moment in this story. So, uh, in this set of parallel narratives, Jane resembling Bertha, Jane Eyre and Beretta resembling blue bid's wife. We are. Told symbolically about the idea of the female rebel female rebel. That's not obey, does not, um, uh, follow the word of the patriarch. So none of the women figures here a little bit to, um, kind of, um, obey the patriarchal, uh, rules and regulations and the pay, the price Bluebeard's ex-wives are killed off, um, verus. Jane of course is, is, um, is, is and a different ending. We'll come to thought. Uh, uh, as we progressed through the lecture sessions, what, what is important, uh, for us to realize is that, um, the female characters are rebellious of patriarchal power is getting disrupted, uh, constantly in this novel. Immediately after the unknowing opening tour of Thornfield Jane here's an eatery laugh, snapping the reader back into her reality. This encounter leaves change. Yes. And inquisitive about for what? Just to himself leading her down with the pot for God, the shadowy Remont she herself cannot decipher it. So the rest of reference to Bluebeard, which erupts in the mind of Jean, when she, um, experiences the interiority of field. Oh, and at the end of the tour, she hears the laugh of birth. Of course, at that time born, she doesn't know, um, that, uh, it comes from the first wife who was locked up, uh, in, in the hall. Um, yet this, um, noise, this, uh, In explicable noise, suggest to Jane that there is something very strange about, Oh, don't feel whole. And she wants to know more. And this curiosity is an attribute of the God he writes. And along the way. This trajectory of curiosity and inquisitiveness on the part of Jane also makes her fall in love with the star figure or, and, um, a shadowy, romantic subject is built, um, in terms of Jane and Rochester. And when she resolves the gut, the dark plot of Dunfield hall, she will also know more about. Though the central, uh, male character, the romantic hero, uh, Rochester.

Video 2: Gothic: Madness and Femininity
Now let me move on to the notions of madness and feminine unity weather. She is construed as the champion of female rebellion or as the image of monstrosity that gene must reject.And the goals of her bill dong, but the Mason bronchitis parodic MarTech mad woman continues to compel feminist criticism to address the highly problematic yet omnipresent conjunction of madness and feminine. This interruption between feminist literary criticism and the text of madness in Jane Eyre. Continues to eat uneasy, completions and madness remains. One of feminism's central contradictions, uh, is a very important, um, fatigue, which brings up two central ideas, the notion off my desk and the notion of the feminine and. Suggests that these are central to the notion of feminism. The idea of feminism now, Bertha Mason is at the heart of it, but the Mason is important because Jane Eyre, the central Ryan of the novel must. With jet this character, but the Mason in order to attain that, and we're off though with Rochester. So this is a Gothic narrative, but with the difference, Jan, EY is a Gothic novel, but with a difference in this, got the novel, Rochester is not the typical God willing. The readers are not supposed to reject Tim as utterly evil, the readers are led to know that Jane Eyre will help Brett Koa Rochester to the good side. So for that process to be complete this outside of figure, This trigger of madness. That is Bertha. Mason must be eliminated from the narco. So how is she going to be eliminated the nod or don't ducktail sauce thought, but don't Mason is March madness is the opposite of the ideal of the feminine. The feminizing figure rejects the notion of madness and what this critic here suggests is dark. It is very difficult for feminist literary criticism to come to Tom. Tom's what my goodness, because madness, why. It is being rejected in this particular novel through Jane Eyre. The idea of heroin yet madness is a symbol of female rebellion madness. Is that great for us? Which opposes the regulations, the standards of patriarchy. Therefore the idea of madness and femininity becomes extremely complicated in this novel Jane Eyre or Jane Eyre in order to reach. That romantic resolution with Rochester must get rid of the figure of while getting rid of Bertha. She is also perhaps rejecting the idea of the female rebel, which is included in that concept of madness in the mind woman and her languages. Nina beam. Deplores the word Bronte has put into defining Bertha out of here, not intervene and proceed. Strategic feminist literary theory ranging from French affiliated feminisms to deconstruction, to task for its valorization of madness, which for horror seems a guarantee of continued oppression. So we see how. Madness is a classic Gothic trope, and we associate madness with rebellion and Burton. Mason is a plastic rebel of sorts men. She attacks so fake in the novel Jane Eyre. We see her act as her way of. Retaliation retaliation for the kind of oppression that she is experiencing within tone field halt. So this particular cryptic, uh, Nina beam, um, criticizes Shalla Bronte for making Bertha inhuman by making her mad by making her mad Charlotte Bronte does is allow. The continued oppression of Bertha, and she also makes it possible for that to be killed off. Um, badness is rejected from, from the natto, from the world of gene and what just, uh, uh, and, and that's rebellion too. So while Bronte is. Criticized. She was old. So good as I think that is the critic. Nina BAME is also criticizing, um, French, uh, fleeted feminisms, uh, up to deconstruction for while arising this kind of madness only to kind of reject it or allow it to be oppressed. The conceptual impasse say implied in the statement that follows the colon in her title. Why do I, why I don't do feminist literature theory on the opposite side. The most obvious approach is Sandra Gilbert and Susan toolbars influential the mad woman in the attic called afterbirth of herself. By this kind of rejection of Bertha. What is suggested is that there is a deadlock, a conceptual deadlock when issues of madness are discussed within the framework of feminist criticism. Um, nevertheless, the other side, Is the obvious, um, critical standpoint of Sandra Gilbert and Goober's very influential, uh, work titled the madwoman in the attic and they are making a very clear reference to it, but that Mason's herself. While in their chapter on female creativity, they argue doc specifically, a woman, right there must examine assimilate and brand sin, the greater, the extreme images of angel and monster. Which male authors have generated for her in the chapter on Jane Eyre, they reproduced the same repressive logic by examining Jane and Bertha in these very terms, reference to Jean as a sane washing of Bertha and viewing the lots of birth Berta solely as a negative example from which Jane must be frayed. What Betty here is attempting to, uh, do is lay out the contradictions in the argument off Sandra Gilbert and Susan Goodbar about Jane Eyre, the novel. On the one hand, they argue that a female writer must go beyond the binary of angel and monster because these two categories are, um, Are those which have been offered to society by male authors, who, who cannot go beyond transcend the good and the evil extremes of femininity. So, uh, while they argued this kind of, uh, rejection of binary, they go on to examine Jane. The central female carpet and the novel as a worshiping of books, they call her the same version of Baraka, the good side of Bertha, and thus, the problem dies. Binary. Jane could become Bertha. If pushed to the extreme and Bert, that could have been Jane, except for the fact that she is a foreigner who had been brought to England by Rochester. So, um, this very close resemblance of the two female characters, Jane and Bertha complicates the binary in the reading of Sandra Gilbert and Susan Goodbar. So. In the, in the latter chapter, in their work, they also argue that Jane must be rescued from Barta. Jane must be freed from Berta, therefore suggesting that, but that is the evil monster, which Have to be, uh, eliminated from the narrative for Jane to have a happy ending to this kind of argument. A complicated argument must come to terms with the binary in a very, very real manner before, um, issues of madness and, um, notions of monster can be reconciled once for all. In this Gilbert and Goodbars analysis is representative of a Constable body of feminist system, which setting out to explicate. The role of madness in Jane Eyre does little more than replicate ideologically problematic 19th century attitudes to it. So, what we understand from the contradictory approaches of Gilbert and Google are two words. Jane and Bertha is that the notion of madness is highly problematic. Um, in relation to the idea of rebellion, therefore, uh, By trying to transcend binary, what Gilbert and Boober ended up doing is that they reinforce existing, problematic, um, attitudes, which, which have their origin in the 19th century to the notion of madness. So. Bertha. What does madness is? Well kind of rebellion, which cannot be easily explained the way as something irrational, which have to be driven away from the text in order for Jane's rationality to triumph. Jane's rationality as well as, um, Jane's, um, morality and what she stands for, um, in that are not a triumph. So it is, uh, uh, critical bugbear, which, which have to be very carefully and, um, very, uh, sensitively addressed. Okay. What becomes apparent in the dine village in positions of BAME madness, lots of feminist interpretation and Gilbert and Goodbar madness for whites feminists with an essential metaphor in a theory of females, abortion of patriarchy is. Not only that Berta and max the split within feminist literary theory regarding interpretations of female madness, but more tellingly. She throws into relief, the theoretical and political inconsistencies upon which readings of her abased betraying materialists socialists. I've got now a Dick feminist recurring anxiety within them. The relation of madness to femininity. Feminist literary criticism has yet to come to terms with this mad woman in the optic. This extended criticism very clearly captures the problematic possession of the idea of madness within the framework of off. Feminist interpretation as well as other materialists and socialists and analytic interpretations madness is complex is equal complex phenomena in relation to the feminine. And it cannot be very easily. Reconciled within the framework of a patriarchal romance. So how do we address, but the presence in Jane Eyre, we address her in these ways. Firstly, Bertha is a character from the Catholic tradition. She is like one of those wives of Bluebeard. She is a wife who is oppressed, a foreign wife, brought from the colony and up within the mansion of Rochester's on feed hall. So she is okay. Rowan of sorts with the security by the Gothic. Male within tone field hall. What about work? Which, which we need to kind of address? Secondly, we have unromantic not enough in relation to gene and watch stir. And in order for their romance to come to fruition, this got, the narrative has to be. Removed from the natto. So the glottic tradition is set aside. It is pushed to the margins. By placing books within a locked up room in pony food hall. And when she dies, when she kills herself in that fire, which she herself creates, the Gothic tradition is set on fire and very conveniently, but that is eliminated from the narco. Leaving space, given room to Rogers and gene too, get engaged and married. So the two traditions need to be recognized. So we need to look at the literary subtexts of this novel before attempting to. Reconcile the notion of madness with way RIAs, the article interpretations. Thank you for watching. Like I mentioned, you have the next session.