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Module 1: Female Gothic

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Feminine Silence and Marginality

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Video 1: Elevating Frankenstein
Hello and welcome to this week's lecture on Mary Shelley's Frankenstein in today's session. I would like to discuss the idea of feminine silence and marginality in relation to this novel. In this session, it would be ideal to talk about a feminine silence in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. By first art talking about Percy Shelley's preface to the 18, 18 addition of this novel in this preface.
One of the aims of Percy Shelley. It seems to be, to elevate Frankenstein about other novelistic products on offer at the time. So he seems to be arguing that this novel seems to be offering something unique when it does compared to others novels at the youth. At that time, he says, I called I'm by no means. Indifferent the manner in which what about moral tendencies exist in the sentiments of characters? It can be affect the reader yet. My chief concern in this respect has been limited, the awarding, the inner weighted effects. So the novel to the present day and to the exhibition of the amiable is of domestic affection and the excellence of universal worship. So what Percy is arguing for here in the preface to, uh, Mary's novel is that, um, That this novel is offering the Amy wilderness. It's just domestic affection. It is portraying the yeah. Wonderful nature of domesticity and that it is representing, um, the time of good over evil. So, and that it is kind of projecting the need for universal worship. So. You can see that in this comment, at least there's no reference to the idea you of the Gothic. Um, it is portrayed as a novelty. Thanks for, um, the idea of knew us so common goodness, um, against, um, against it that are the contrary in this work. So, um, And you can also see how he is talking about the inner weighting effects of the novels novels, which have, uh, detrimental effects, negative effects on the readers, which were being produced at the same time as, um, mainly Shelley's Frankenstein further. Um, it is significant to note that, um, Shelly is, um, stating that he is a way of the fact that, um, sentiment of, um, Sentimental tendencies and, and on the nature of characters in the novel will have an impact on the psyche of the reader. Um, so if you go back to that, um, uh, phrase, he, um, you know what our model tenders is existed in the sentiments of characters, shell affect the leaders of that novel is a powerful, you know, I object because it hasn't affected me on the reader and that Frankenstein is going to be. Different from the rest of the novels at the time because of its capacity to offer, um, the idea of, um, set of circumstances, which can be used as a more before the readers. So maybe talk about, um, the innovative effects. Um, the idea mentioned in the, uh, preface by Percy Shelley and, um, the critic, uh, Angela, right? I mentioned that the elation, the innervating effects with the novels. Breslin day. Uh, it is, uh, an advocation of what William works with earlier, implicit denigration of the Gothic and the preface to lyrical ballad that he complained of the frantic novels, sickly and stupid German tragedies and delusions of idol and extravagant stories and words that he perceived to be contaminating, literary taste in Britain. So you can see. This context in mind, the context of with, um, you know, attack on the God, like in his preface to lyrical ballads, which is supposed to have assured um, the romantic, uh, uh, movement in great Britain that, um, plastic is reacting to the, uh, And tack off the Limbert word when he's writing the breakfast menu Shelley's Frankenstein. So he is trying to differentiate between Mary's work and the frantic novels, sickly and stupid German tragedies and extravagant stories. So what he's trying to do is to kind of marginalize the idea of the God thick. Yeah. Um, then he is categorizing, um, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein instead of what he protects the novel to be is, is, is a kind of a statement of, uh, ideal domesticity. And, um, you know, as, as showcasing the trends of good or we're evil. So you can see that there, but of a literary T's and Newman's and, uh, criticism that is, uh, going on as a backdrop to that preface. Further it is to be noted that the 1818 preface takes Constable care to distance itself from the Gothic form only admitting it's inspiration, the collection of German ghost stories, a fantasy Gloriana in the famous ghost story competition of the ability to adapt in the most coyly apologetic terms with the comment that these stales excited in us, a playful desire of imitation. So when, um, how's his writing this, uh, preface to Mary's, um, Frankenstein. He realizes that the label of the Gothic might have direct to mental effect, uh, in terms of, um, The kind of criticism, it might walk from the sophisticated circles circles to which poets are just reimburse with the long too. So he just kind of refers to the idea of the optic in relation to the ghost stories from which this novel was inspired. Um, during that, uh, ghost story competition that we discussed at length in the previous lecture, I , um, The place where, uh, Mary Shelley started writing, uh, uh, got the inspiration to write a Frankenstein. Um, so, so he, he just mentioned that the inspiration came from, um, German got the stories and it was a kind of a playful, um, you know, uh, bit of a game. Um, it's a playful desire of imitation. It is not to be taken too seriously. It was inspired by these. Tales, but the end product is something else. So he is kind of trying to distance, um, Frankenstein from the Gothic tradition because he thinks that that is not, um, going to be appreciated by, um, high-brow, uh, commentators. And that got the CAS its own kind of, um, set of, uh, responses from, um, the, the higher critics out, which, which, uh, you know, uh, you know, the negativity from those predicts, he doesn't want to be applied in relation to, um, The assessment of a Frankenstein, the breakfast farther, uh, complete, um, uh, by moving away from this carefully in coded reference to the ghost story competition. So the competition, the contest and the context for, um, Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is kind of a record. That seems to be a key moment, uh, for this, um, Arjun. Or is your narrative of Frankenstein, which keeps it reccurring when we are thinking about the, um, nature of this novel. So he refers to that RGB moment for the blood of this novel. Uh, I called the weather. How was it? Suddenly became serene. And my two friends left me on a journey I'm on the outs and lost the magnificent scenes, which they present all memory visions. So nature in this breakfast, trumps delight, amusement of fictional creation. Exhausting. Exercising, the ghostly missions that made that the male friends in the group only entertained when they were in need of in those diversion. So if you look at the way the has been set up and it was Shelly, he seems to be stating that, you know, when the weather became better, we all broke up a friends list for a trip among the abs and the, um, the visions also disappeared with the weather becoming more up. Conducive for outdoor exploration. So God, and the idea of supernatural narrative seems to be associated with the endorsed diversion when the brother is, um, extremely hostile. So it's a moment of, yeah, the thing, that's what, um, Percy Shelley seems to be mentioning. And, uh, it just seems to be a kind of a dream big then they broke. So that kind of idea is. Deliberately inserted in the preface in order to kind of, and why's that, you know, they see Russ macabre, um, ghostly ambiance of, of the, uh, you know, nights during which all the friends are sat together and talked about, uh, supernatural, uh, not at that stage. That is marginalized here. I want to connect that idea with Robert Walton, the Arctic Explorer who rescues, uh, Victor Frankenstein and he's, um, you know, uh, uh, lost, uh, among the Arctic ways in his pursuit of, um, the monster. So what. Then it's a character who kind of admires the sublimity of nature and his wonder and appreciation of the beauty of the Arctic is a pattern in his description of the scenery that he witnesses. He presents it as a strange place, which Frankenstein later tells him makes it a proper excellent, strange deal. He will hear its unfamiliarity and wild beauty, heightened Walton. Desire to explore it. Like Frankenstein Walton celebrates the majestic and the power of nature in his description of it. So while appreciation of nature is crucial, it is crucial because it brings in the idea of sublime nature, nature, which is beautiful at the same time or inspiring striking a kind of strange fear in the buzzer who is witnessing it. And secondly, Frankenstein, um, relate to what, uh, admiration and procession of nature, the sublimity of nature, and says that this setting is perfect for him, for Victor to relate the story, the strange and bizarre story of how he created the monster, which is kind of, um, vengeance on him and his family. So the unfamiliarity and the flight VAT is related to the strange tale of Frankenstein. And, um, that relationship is crucial to, um, the idea of the Cod thick and, uh, and, and it's, and it's, um, you know, um, discussions of what this, um, for this novel. It kind of takes us back to, um, doc, uh, discussions of the friends in and their setting, um, in, in, in incremental weather. So that don't keeps recurring the reality and the fiction is kind of overlapping. In in the of Frankenstein's story

Video 2: Silence of the Female
No, the female is largely silent. Um, the story of Frankenstein and the silence of the female author of Frankenstein at the 1880 preface is echoed uncannily in the very framework of the tale. Mary Shelley is not writing it. Preface, it's her husband, Percy who's writing a preface in 1818, and, um, the novel itself begins as a series of four letters addressed, um, from the Explorer. Robert walked into the silent address. See mrs. Savin, mrs. Margaret Savile, ms. The initials used, um, in, in the novel as well. So. Well, the female author was silent, right. And there are no major senior characters in the novel as well. Um, of course there are, um, tractors, but they don't play any great park in the, um, way events, unfold. Elsabet level of the dyes Justine does. Um, so you can see that notch fair of the actions, right. Are performed or in relation to the male characters. We learned in the second sentence of the novel and of, um, from the first letter that mrs. Sal Sabal is Walden steel sister, but only after Walton has mentioned it in his opening sentence, that this intimacy has regarded his and to Bryce with, even for boarding. So not only is the female silent, the female is also not very appreciative or, um, Oh, the female does not have very high regard for the enterprise, uh, on which, um, Robert Walton is embark on. Look, she looks at it with a evil, for boardings, as you know, with, um, With anticipation of things, um, you know, bad for this project. So you can see a particular kind of capitalization, uh, from the sidings, uh, to, um, the way the Phoebe and judges, the male, uh, adventure project. So what in, in his letters is trying to convince her to feel and think in a more positive way. And I called, uh, this is from the day. Normally you cannot contest the inestimable benefit. The Disha confer on all mankind to the last generation. Walter did one point further the on in letter one who tries to convince himself the merit of an enterprise. And now. Dear Margaret, do I know this, that accomplished and great purpose, but there is no answer. There's no recogn letter from Sabel and shouldn't mean silent Frankenstein. So. Well, the silence with the female is important. There's also an important characteristic before then, which emerges from these letters, which is that he desires to confer benefit of mankind. He is trying to act as the benefactor, as someone who is going to for mankind, innumerable benefits by his actions, by his exploration. And in that regard, Can be compared to Frankenstein, who is trying to create this new race, um, by first creating and the monster. But, but we know that even that frustration becomes an act of failure and, uh, have a daughter destroys the second female monster that he created. So you can see the, some larger between the two and, and, and how both are related as well to the idea of the Promethean legend, which I'll come to Sharklet in this lecture. When we understand that the feminine has been suppressed and made silent, uh, and that there is a much less station of the feminine and Frankenstein. We also realized that it Nemo vanishes from the narrative altogether. Uh, it is kind of, um, you know, having an impact on the may of heroes adventures. Um, the novel's narrative structure exposes the men's agency, uh, and the ambitious aspirations, at least potentially the judgment of the female case, which belongs both to the fictional reader, Margaret Savile, and the writer, male Shelly. So, uh, this is an important argument, which, uh, uh, suggest that while, uh, The feminine is silent. The feminine is the judge. She is judging simply the adventures of the male. Um, Robert Woods is desperate to kind of see the approval of his sister, Margaret Savile and Margaret manga salvo can be a standard for Mary Shelley. Self. So ms. You can see how the initials could suggest I decide, or, or it can be a standard for the right to herself. Uh, the female case seems to be the ultimate, um, ultimately Signum significant case and it is, um, to that case, all these are. Not that are offered. And it is also a common assumption that many of the Gothic fiction were read by women. rather than by the men. You see how I, you know, ultimately the novel comes to the eyes of the female reader. So even though the rest of marginalization, it was December nine. Shannon is the, is the kind of all seeing, uh, eyes, um, which are, uh, Which are kind of judging the actions of the men. Walden's exposition letters demonstrate that he's not fixed in his purpose. He reminds Margaret of his early ambitions to great boardroom and how they have not. Transformed integrated quest for glory in the seafaring life that his father explicitly denied him upon his death bed. So, um, the letters are also, uh, offering a glimpse into the kind of, uh, character that Walton heirs who initially wanted to become, um, you know, great by writing queer DRI, but then upon the denial of his father, he, um, In inbox on his seafaring quest. So, uh, that, um, kind of, uh, uncertainty as to the choice of this profession, uh, also kind of tells you the kind of man that warden is who doesn't seem to be, uh, fixed in his ambition. Predict and Kimbella has observed that, uh, like with the Frankenstein himself, Walton, this dust and other employment seeking degree, the, a more monitoring by revealing a new land of fire and light to man Walter provides a shadowy double effect of Frankenstein and his from within class ambition and inattention to the safety of those around him. Um, so this is a kind of a scathing criticism on, um, Victor Frankenstein, as well as on, uh, Robert Walton, uh, who seemed to kind of sure God, um, safety those around him by embarking on, uh, dangerous, uh, escapades or adventures. So, uh, Walton can also be in figure justice. Different gets done is, um, Because Walton wants to kind of show, um, the rest of the humanity, the, uh, not listed passage, um, just as, um, Victor Frankenstein wants to kind of, um, create a new race of creatures, um, by his, uh, remarkable and resourceful, um, you know, knowledge. So this kind of offering a new path or a new land. Fire and light to mankind is, is it's dangerous. And that is what our Frankenstein to the leaders and to the men who were involved in such great enterprises. Now let's quickly. See what, um, Promet T is legend is about in relation to S Carlos who wrote this play Pramata. He is bound and he brought from a system that is, is the tidal who brings the fire and civilization to more bills. So he is the bringer of light and civilization, and he he's also their preserver and gives them all the arts and scientists as, uh, as a means of their survival. But then he is punished for his overreaching. Um, Oh capacity. He, he kind of overly just, he overstepped the bounds of what he's supposed to do and see us burnishes him, um, by tying him to a rock and, and having an ego eat on his own, which seems to regional right too. It's a constant process. and if you can pack this with the novel. Like Joe and Stan is C is kind of constantly punished repetitively perish by having his brother die at the hands of the monster, then, uh, his best friend Henry and then his own wife, um, Ellsberg. Um, so it's a series of punishments, which kind of, you know, uh, repeatedly attacks Victor's peace of mind and there'll be, and Victor himself loses his life. Um, you know, uh, because of this constant, um, CATA and grit and physical suffering that he, uh, and it goes to because of this creature. Now I want to kind of touch on the idea of the monster and marginality from a different point of view, um, and Vinnie to realize that the creature, which is forced right from its inception and do a poster of marginal marginality. Uh, if you remember the moment of, um, uh, of the creature come to life, you know, it's like a child, an incident, and it kind of reaches out to Victor and the fleas. Um, this creature bit by bed is forced to discover itself as a monster. It doesn't realize that it is a thing of dread that it's a hard contrast with the rest of you anarchy. If it's kind of, yeah. Being for itself determined, it's being as determined by the gains of others, the others. Um, judge the kind of nature that monster is supposed to possess and so big in some of the most painful for mantic educations. One that only a woman, a slave or call my subject could imagine to them monster can be a symbol for all these different categories. Um, the female, the slave, and the call, my subject, because all these categories, these are all two marginalized, oppressed, and rejected by the powerful other. So it's, it's a fantastic kind of set of interpretations that one can see through the figure of the monster. Thank you for watching. I'll continue the next session.