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Module 1: The ‘Explained Supernatural’, Gothic Sublime, and Aristocratic Villainy

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Ann Radcliffe: The Mysteries of Udolpho

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M2 Video 1: Gothic Hero and Heroine
hello and welcome to this week's lecture in this lecture. I'm going to talk about, and Ratliffs the mysteries of your doll before we. Start discussing the castle motive, which is going to be one of the key teams of this novel. I want to briefly remind you of some of the key, got the features, and then introduce you to the plot, um, quite quickly before taking you.To, uh, an in depth discussion of the nature of the castle motive in this novel. So what are some of the goddess features, um, to just jog your memory? Because we have discussed these, uh, concepts quite extensively in the introductory lectures. Um, the key got the features are dilapidated castles, ruined structures and buildings.And we also sometimes have a beautiful rural landscape, which is the case in the mysteries of Adolfo. You have a moral hero in a very, what drew us a vaginal, uh, heroin, uh, who is persecuted, uh, by accrual or willing. And, um, there are. Supernatural occurrences either imagined or real, uh, in the case of mrs.Radcliffe, these supernatural occurrences are, have ultimately right, uh, explanations. Now. Um, the female got thick is a type of Gothic, um, in this, uh, genre and some of the key, um, Aspects of female Gothic are absent mothers or mothers who quickly die or killed off. Um, so that idea of absent mothers, um, is a common trope, a common phenomenon, right.Or aspect of Gothic fiction. And we do get weird creations of this motive in, um, This particular novel, the mysteries of you to offer. We have overbearing fathers usually, um, and, um, suffering doctors and, uh, the female Coptic and the female cockpit. Very interestingly is a narrative in which we discuss Aussie in which we see dysfunctional families at play.So one of the plot. Propolis of an aspect, which kind of pushes the plot into, um, motion is this idea of dysfunctional families, families break up payments, perhaps die, and the young hero, knowing this left to fend for herself. And that is the case with them. Ms. Freeze off, uh, your dog food, where we see Emily being left to fend for herself.Gothic literature is about trauma trauma suffered by the central female heart, usually. And we have got the adoptable gang by doppelgangers. We mean doubles, you know, um, two people, um, reassembling one another either really physically or psychologically. So, um, there are, um, you know, similar. Figures proliferating in Gothic fiction.So, um, this proliferation also ties in with this idea of repetition and, um, so things are repeated in with slightly different variations. Um, if you look at the mysteries of the dolphin, we see, uh, Emily sent over, um, Um, kind of, uh, being present in different kinds of yeah. Cause also you don't for is not the only castle in this particular novel.We have other novels, some good and some, uh, you know, um, so good for just the case of you dealt for. So these resemblances are pretty, very interesting because we realize that in, um, um, but for the grace of God, I would also be like this with Tim or. Like this cruel oppressor, so that repetition is a very significantly, deeply and got the section.And we have sometimes gaps, um, gaps in some incidents are not neatly explained. It might sound mysterious. It might appear mysterious, but the explanations which come at the end of the tail are not perfect. So we do have pockets where, where, um, you know, um, it doesn't make sense in terms of our understanding of the plot.So got the trauma is a. Symptom of psychological trauma suffered by the victim. So we do have a fascination for the ruins, and that is the case with Anne Radcliffe's the mysteries of your doleful. And so why is this fascination and the critic, a Bay, a Baron bomb, um, argues that it is the desire for the wild.The unbounded, the wild, the Gothic, the Gothic classical in itself becomes a sort of a wild at D and B are attracted to the wild and the endless expanse of something, which is mysterious. Something which contains a lot of unexplained, um, questions. So, um, this desire is embedded in our fascination for the gut deck.No, mrs. Ratcliff is very famous for whole Gothic fiction. In fact, as I pointed out earlier, uh, she has, um, and she was responsible for starting the school of, uh, the Radcliffe where, uh, her followers, uh, wrote fiction, which were modeled on her writings. And, um, she was very popular in the, uh, 18th and 19th century.And we don't know much about her. Uh, ms. Teresa Fidelis will, was published in 17 T 94. And, um, It was a publishing phenomenon. The work was a hugely successful and this work, the mysteries of life four has come to signify, um, or come to represent what it means to be Gothic for a text, just so it becomes the rent sector. It is the model based on which other novels are written. And the rock cliff and got thick. Um, the term rock and got thick is almost a tautology is almost a repetition because Ratcliffe, it means God and God nicknames, Radcliffe. And so you can see the impact that Andy Rachleff had on this particular genre. Now, um, we need to look, um, quickly at the nature of this plot. It's a very convoluted, long drawn out novel. There's no easy, um, summarisation of this novel, the incidents are plentiful, um, and, and there are lots of disappearances, kidnappings imprisonment. Um, forced, um, you know, uh, courtship. So it is a complex broad, but let's, let's look at the bare bones of it. Um, right now here. So this novel is set in France and Italy in the late 16th century. And the central character is Emily sent a book. She is a very beautiful and what she was young. A woman. And when her father dies, this orphaned, Emily goes to live with her on, um, and, and the onscreen it's quite complex. So, um, let's see. Um, You know, she is not somebody who is very, very good benign and, um, helpful. In fact, her marriage to count Tony kind of complicates the life of this young man. Good. So the aunt's husband and is this Italian Italian nobleman called Montani, who tries to force Emily to marry his friend, um, Moreno. So Tony is this villain. He is the key villain of this novel. He's a typical Gothic Waylon. He's extremely cruel wildland. He's cruel towards his own wife. And, um, Do it Emily, her award and he locks them up in his castle, the causal of adult four, eventually Emily escapes and the novel ends happily with Emily meringue, uh, while in court. Um, the man whom she loves. So this is, um, in brief the plot of Adolfo. What is it composed of? It has, as I said, ruined castles, beautiful, horrible landscape, which are described at length at several points in the story. And the heroine is very, very morally good and the wilderness extremely evil. And there are occurrences in the plot, which, um, seem to be, uh, which seem to be supernatural in tone and nature. But ultimately they are explained by reason. So this is a company, common theme of rock clubs got the fiction. So that's spirit world old is, um, kind of explained the way by a rational means. However, if I want you to remember that for us, what was the cattle castle of a Toronto and Matthew Lewis is the monk do genuinely feature the supernatural. So we don't really have the spirit world explained a way reasonably, um, through reason by the end of the novels. What kind of a figure is Emily? The clock heroine. She is very sentimental. Um, she is a sentimental horizon as well as a, got the Caroline, uh, sentimental had Orrin has a particular meaning in that period, which means. The Huron is acutely sensible, sensitive to the things that are happening around her. So she is young, beautiful and persecuted, but she is also gifted with acute many sharp sensibility. Um, she is very impressionable. Um, she is able to absorb the things around her, be it natural scenery or the character of the other people around her. So she feels everything, um, in an intense. Manner. Um, so she is, she has artistic ability, which is seen as an outcome of her acute sensibility, and she's also prone to fainting and fits of excess. So we pick, so, um, the critics are kind of divided about the nature of the Gothic Huron. Some argued that, um, got the Caroline. You know, uh, are very, very, um, prone to fainting, the easily faint. They are weak and, and they need to be rescued, um, at every corner by a dashing hero. But some argue that, you know, the car, the cure, it is not just that. They are curious, they're all also courages. They can, um, in the cafeteria and selves, they also crust in the oppression of the central villain. They also will the language of rights and the equal rights, um, for, uh, for women too. So it's a complex picture of, we are getting in terms of how to perceive this. Got the Caroline. However, um, you know, in this novel she's taught kind of overcome her access sensibility, which is not really helpful because it kind of prevents her from acting. It prevents her from getting that golden mean as to how to kind of, um, you know, play a role in this world. And, um, she kind of picks up from the teachings of who asks for advice. I advise her not to be extremely sensitive, not to be extremely, um, you know, um, Impressionable further on Emily, the got the Carolyn in terms of her education. She learns, as I said, uh, the middle course and how to reach a balanced self government, how to conduct oneself in with sentiment is not repressed to do a cold unfeeling story system. But controlled by the higher faculty of reason. Right? So there is, um, you know, there's a mean there's a moderate part in which he doesn't tell her herself into a cold, unsafe feeling, our character characters, a reaction to acute sensibility. On the other hand, she tries to modify her sensitivity the D with the help of reason. So that, that is done. Ideal golden mean the middle part. So your acute sensitivity is kind of being guided, um, by, uh, by reason your, your sentiment is kind of two weeks by reason. And, um, the novel becomes a kind of a series of tests. It's not just a recording of growth from a sentimental harrowing to a Metro one. It is also a series of tests for her morality and sensibility. So. The glut thick narrative is not just a scary, not origami. It has its own purpose. It of course has a lot of, um, you know, bizarre incidents. But, um, the subtext is that there is a growth that is being recorded of a central character, uh, which talks to the weeder about it, or how to, um, uh, how to lead an ideal life in the real society. Now, uh, let's talk about the Gothic hero of the mysteries of fiddle. So, uh, while in court, um, is the hero of this art fiction guide, um, B don't kind of see him throughout the novel. As we see Emily sent over. And, uh, his key characteristic is his sensibility is impressed by awesome landscapes and he is as sentimental or even most of them sentimental man Emily's and all, but he's generous, um, as a hero should be. And he is also very passionate about life in general. Uh, when, um, the aunt breaks up the engagement, uh, with Emily, he is, um, Quite depressed artist's separation from is beloved and he throws himself into bad company. So we also have, uh, another building and this building's from Amman is in connection with, uh, uh, while in court. So just as we see Emily, uh, kind of growing up, we also see, um, valid code, uh, growing up as well into earth Metro, um, figure. So, Oh, you know, quite close to that, um, So in the novel, in through the figure of violence court, we see the innocent youth, uh, being, uh, corrected by the city and, um, he becomes morally swollen apparently. And then, uh, how his record is, uh, coincident with his, uh, reunion with, uh, Emily. Sent a bark. So, uh, but at the end of the novel, we kind of art dark violin code is not as terrible as he is, um, seem to be. And, uh, he, in fact, didn't really kind of, um, you know, um, contact with, um, caught the signs and other immoral, um, figures.So he is reclaimed. So there was a kind of reclamation going on at the end of the novel. And he is reinstated as a hero worthy of Emily's and Allbirds love. So we do have two growth trajectories, one of the heroine, one of the hero, and we, the similarity between the two is start. Um, they are equally very, very sensitive and, and sense sentimental.


Video 2: Gothic Villain: Count Montani
Now let's quickly look at the Waylon of this piece, which is count Montani. So he is the man who marries Emily's aren't Madam Chevron, um, for her money. And one Tony is the quintessential. Got Dick Wilson. He is a very powerful and imperious and he is a law unto himself. There is no way he could be checked by any kind of authority really effectively because he isolate himself from society. And he is, um, as you would know, if you read the novel that he is a real danger to the women, as well as to the men around him. And he seems to kind of face the support for natural in a powerful way. He could handle the supernatural because he is an evil himself. So he is appalling in Tony is a poor yeah. For us, uh, in this novel. So, um, even though at the, at the end of the novel, he didn't actually murder his wife. Um, the aunt of, uh, Emily, um, You know, uh, he does spreadsheet herself. Uh, he, he does kind of a force, um, Force her to give up her property. And when she refuses, he imprisons her in the causal of Adolfo until she dies of neglect and, um, or starvation.So, um, though he hasn't literally killed her off, he is directly responsible for the death of, um, uh, his wife and Emily's aren't. And because Montani is isolated from the rest of society. Um, he is easily able to, um, you know, uh, affect, uh, figures, um, young female figures to just Emily and women such as, um, you know, Madam Sharon. And he is also beyond the reach of law, um, because of his isolation. However he does get his comeuppance. He does get his justice because he dies in prison. At the end of the day for the crimes. He had committed as the hedge of a group of a mercenary soldier. So we do get a sense of poetic justice. And if you look at, um, the three of Tony, um, you, you realized that he is making his moves. Um, all his evil moves his, uh, he is, um, you know, uh, influence chin cruelty on others in order to gain. Property. So it is property that kind of drives greed that drives all his persecution. So it it's a novel, which kind of lays where the moral compass, you know, it becomes easily easy to distinguish between what is right and wrong in got the section. So we can see further characteristics of this, um, count when Tony he's not just cool. He is sexist as well. So he has a very discriminatory attitude towards women. And, um, this critic, uh, dilution argues that his passion, his high passions run without restraint, unregulated by the women. Surrounding him. He regards women as inferior property to be abandoned and drafted targets. At one point he condemns the modern right of women calling his friend and Emily's admirer count Moran or the slave of a pretty tyrant when he played for Emily's comfort. So you can, you can see. You know, uh, the, the attitude of this villain towards the women, he just sees them as objects and, and he treats them, um, you know, uh, as things that can be discarded, if that thing fails to please him. And, um, he, he, he thinks that it's, it's kind of, um, you know, easy to put them in tubers and, and that kind of physical punishment will make them, um, you know, Give up what he wants. So, um, and you can see that Emily's, aren't resists all these kinds of physical punishment. He, she refuses to give up the property, um, to her husband. In fact, she, um, transfers the property to, um, Emily her ward and cheetah excuses to give in to the pressures of . So calm one Tony's passions have no restaurant. It's endless. It's unbounded. And the word unbounded is very interesting because, um, you know, um, then we associate all, uh, when we think back to all these castles and we associate started with kind of boundless expanse of, um, uh, uh, buildings, it's massive, you know, just like the massive greed of the County who leads this or who is the master of such castle. So at one point, um, you know, he, uh, at one point the count, um, condemn stir a modern rule of lemon port and coat, it has to be put, uh, put in codes, um, the modern rule of women, because women are not drooling, that he calls it the modern rule of them and in society and calls his friend count Morano, who is I'm paying court to Emily and, um, asks some not to be the slave of this petty tied and the petty tyrant being, um, Yeah, Emily, an Arbor, but we do understand the readers do understand that it's not Emily. Who's the , but it is I'm Antoni. So women did not any kind of comfort in the perspective of con Tony. So, um, they are seen as, um, next let's look at the idea of the console. The council has received a lot of attention from critics. It goes, the castle becomes a represent of, uh, several things. Um, you know, it becomes a representation of the body. It becomes, um, you know, uh, a symbol of oppression. Uh, it becomes a patriarchal space. So it is a very, very interesting, yeah, I did put forth by Albright. Uh, yeah, let's look at it closely. The council has received a great deal of attention by. More than critics as a representation of the body or as an oppressive in closing patriarchal space. It relatively little attention has been paid to it as a drop of time, such feminist and psycho. Now the readings are oriented spatially rather than poorly. And while eliminating the obscure, the fact that Radcliffe's contemporaries will have seen the crumbling or castle, primarily as a figure of good antiquity and sublimity. It's a very interesting, uh, court, which, which can be, um, analyzed in detail. Yeah, I do see it's various points that it is, uh, raising this comment is raising the cost of has a lot of implications. Um, it can be a symbol for, uh, the human body. It can represent a particular figure. It can represent the patriarchal space itself. Um, but. A feminist in psychoanalytic reading. Um, Dustin, give it a full consideration in Allbright's view, parcels seen as partial, uh, entities, you know, units of space rather than of time such readings, feminists and psychoanalytic readings. Doesn't see the castle in its, um, in its, um, Actual light, which is dark. You know, the castle is a symbol of antiquity and sublimity. So that is the point Albert is driving home here. Yes. It's a bit struck of space. Yes. It's representation of a body, but it is primarily it's most importantly, an object of antiquity. It's it's an object, which is from ancient time, from the middle ages from previous time, and this kind of castle prompts, provokes evil, um, feelings of submit sublimity on the viewer. So it's, it's a, it's a sublime edifice. So when you read, when you read the coffee, when you see a causal feelings of sublimity are evoked in the reader and viewer and, um, The key point that he is, um, you know, underlining is that the contemporaries of Ratcliffe would have seen the causal in dark manner as an object of ancient time and as an element of a sub limiting. So while bright sees the castle as an object of past time and as an edifice that prompts feelings of, or, um, Then he also tells us the, you know, the feminist critics would see the castle as an embodiment of patriarchal. Let's see what, um, Ian, uh, P what has to say about it? Um, the fascination with the costal. Yeah. So what discusses the late 18th century, his fascination with the tension between past and present as evidence in his preoccupation with ruins and art, architecture, and landscape, and observed that in the Gothic novel, the castle becomes connected with the family because it is essentially the materials arrival of a powerful lineage assemble the continuing life of its founder. So, um, this fascination. Off the clock for the classical, uh, in what view, um, kind of it brings together the tension between the past and the present. And we know that it is constant, um, uh, motive, the fractures between the past and the present are come to the floor, uh, in, in the Gothic, not though. So we are familiar with this idea and, um, you know, This preoccupation with ruin the structures, architecture landscape that is kind of, um, being, uh, discussed. So all of these are connected with that idea of the tension between the past and the print. And so that's one point that he brings up here, but most importantly, the central idea that he is trying to figure out point out here is that the co the castle becomes the symbol of the family. It represents, um, you know, the lineage, a powerful lineage because only a powerful in aged care, um, kind of. Bring to the fore can, um, you know, orchestrate or construct such a big castle. So the classes becomes, uh, a, a tangible, a concrete survivor of that lineage of the very, very potent lineage. And it becomes a symbol that is being passed on, um, a concrete symbol that's being passed on from one family member to another, with the generation being kept a lie.And so that. Importance of the family is also underpinned by the castle. So that's something we need to keep in mind. So it becomes, um, a continuation of that first primary progenitor, the first founder. Yeah. He is able to kind of pass on his symbol. I threw his succeeding generations through this castle, which, which gets passed down through the heirs and descendants.So it's okay. It's a very important point that we need to keep in mind. Okay. Now let's see how backed in, um, perceives the idea of the castle. So what are his, um, TerraCycle, uh, viewpoints in relation to the structure of the castle? The concert is a place with a lot of the feudal era lived and consequence, consequently, all the plays of historical figures of the past. The traces of centuries and generations arranged in it in visible form as well. Architecture in furnishings, weapons, the ancestral gallery, the family archives, and in the particular human relationships involving dynasty primacy and the transfer of heritage tree. Right. So back then kind of maps out how. Different generations are embedded in this space crossover. So it is a place where I feed a lot lift. It is also the place of historical figures and construct and figures and futile lot are, you know, overlapping figures and this castle. So it has praises of various generations where centuries, right? Because all these, um, you know, past time is qualified is Concord is in the castle. Through furnishings, you know, different Lords will they have finished it in different ways. So all these are present, it becomes a museum, um, almost in the way, the past is retained through all these material objects. So weapons are their weapons from the past. And, you know, that happens across the time and the portrait gallery of course, and the portraits of, um, you know, uh, Past figures, the ancestors of the present Lord, the portrait gallery is very, very significant because it kind of, um, through the pro portraits, it offers a kind of a run down of the times of the various times, which this castle has seen. Um, and we have the family archives as well in, in the, in the castle, through the various property documents and deeds. So this. Castle becomes, um, you know, uh, a way a map, a structure map, which kind of capital, just the passing of time. And it continues to kind of map itself through human relationships, which are about diagnostic primacy as to who is going to succeed and things like that and the transfer of headed. Right. So it is a very, very cool, crucial, um, structure. Edifice because of the way it relates to the passing of time and the way it kind of captures time through different means. Thank you for what Jane I'll continue in the next session.