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Module 1: Skin Care

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It is important for you to have an idea of how the skin functions and what you can do to protect it. Part of your job is to offer beauty tips to your clients and work with them to protect their skin. Skin plays an important role in our overall health and the focus needs to be on its protection. This module will look at skin care and how you can direct your clients to protect their skin. It will also help you understand the importance of doing your job correctly to protect your client’s skin. Taking care of your skin is very important because as you age, your skin becomes drier and more wrinkled. However, if you take care of it, you can look young for a long time without the need for surgeries or procedures. The largest body organ is the skin. It covers an area of around twenty square feet. Its several purposes are to protect the body from the elements and microbes, to assist in the regulation of body temperature, and for sensations to cold, heat, and touch. It consists of three layers: the Epidermis, Dermis and Hypodermis. The Epidermis is the outer layer of skin, that creates the skin tone and provides a barrier that is waterproof. It actually consists of fifteen layers to forty layers. The amount of layers of skin depends on the part of the body. For example, the skin is the thinnest underneath the eyelids and a lot thicker on the bottom of the feet. The thickness of the skin depends on age and gender as well. For most people, the skin thins as we age. Most of the skin consists of dead cells. It is mostly a collection of protein-filled and flattened cells that are layered on top of the other ones. When the cells move from one to the next, filaments of keratin, a protein, and a substance that is granular called keratohyaline are produced. They clump together and kill the cells. This is called keratinization. These cells make up the nails and hair, but the skin is flexible and soft. That is how it is easy for you to bend your fingers and move your knees. The keratinocyte cells are tough once they make it to the surface. They are bonded together by proteins that they produced. They create a shield that protects them from light, heat, chemicals, and bacteria. This lamination also makes them waterproof. It keeps the fluids inside and most of the water from the outside from getting in, so that you don’t get water logged. It is hard to see the skin shedding. However, the skin sheds and renews itself every four or five weeks. The old cells become dust and the skin renews itself. You shed almost two pounds of dead skin cells each year. Once the new cells reach the surface, they look fresh. They do not show the signs of wear and tear from the environment. This concept lead to the development of the chemical peel. The chemicals are rubbed into the outer layers of skin. These layers die and are peeled off. The skin underneath is fresh and new. This treatment helps the person to have less wrinkles, and younger, smoother skin. The process of skin renewal, improves appearance and makes the skin look more healthy. There are nerve cells in the epidermis that send signals to the brain. Langerhans cells fight off diseases. The core cells for colour are called melanocyte cells. The melanocyte cells make pigment, also called melanin. There are the same numbers of these cells in everyone’s skin. The melanocyte cells create melanosomes, which are tiny pockets of granules. Every one of these cells is clear and has a dark section in the center and a group of arms that extend outwards. The arms give off melanosomes or pockets of color, to the cells around it. These keratinocyte cells move the color to the hair color and skin. Dermis is the middle layer of the skin that varies in thickness. It consists of blood vessels, nerve fibers, hair follicles, sweat glands, muscle cells, oil glands, collagen, groups of fibers of protein, and fibers that are elastic that help it stretch. A lattice framework of collagen groups and elastic fibers is made for the skin cells. This support system makes it firm, full, and elastic. Wrinkles begin when the elastin and collagen begin to wear out. The dermis regulates body temperature. It is where the eccrine (sweat) glands are present. There are millions of sweat glands in the body. They work to maintain a healthy body temperature. Subcutaneous tissue is the bottom layer of the skin, which is made from a thick assortment of collagen and elastin. It is what gives the skin a stable and strong base. There is also a layer of fat in this layer of the skin, which acts as padding for your organs and bones and gives you insulation. This fat layer can also provide energy when you don’t eat when you are hungry.