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Module 1: Módulo 6: Factores que influyen en Cuidados de Enfermería Transcultural

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Las creencias religiosas acerca de la enfermedad y la muerte

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RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ABOUT ILLNESS AND DEATH

Introduction


Aspects of Religion and Religious practices can impact the Medical Practitioner in providing care in Transcultural settings. As very often religious practices and rituals are manifested in illness and death, depending on the cultural group, family structure, society norms and traditional roles of men and women.

Learning Outcomes:

Understand how religious beliefs influence illness and death.

Cite the nursing implications when treating patients from different religious dominations.

Identify significant rituals, days of worship and specific practices that impact the patient's treatment during illness and hospitalization.


a. The Jewish Religion.
(1) Practices.
(a) Dietary practices vary among Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Jews.
b) 1 The patient should be asked if/how he/she observes the Kosher dietary laws.
c) 2 The head nurse or dietician should be notified so that the dietary practices can be considered when meals are prepared and served.
(b) The Jewish person is expected by the culture to be independent and self-reliant; and emphasis is placed upon responsibilities and obligations to God.
(c) All practicing Jews observe Saturday as the Sabbath.
(d) The most important Jewish holidays are Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah, and Passover.
(e) The patient may wish to see the Rabbi (spiritual leader).
(f) Circumcision of male infants is generally a religious ceremony and is sometimes performed at the hospital.

(2) Nursing implications.
(a) Although it is usually not possible to serve Kosher meat in a nonsectarian hospital, the nurse can be sure not to serve meat and dairy foods together or pork to an Orthodox Jewish patient.
(b) Allow the patient to be as independent as possible and make as many of his/her own decisions as possible.
(c) Be especially observant for indications that a patient needs pain medications because he/she may not tell you if he/she needs them. These indications may be:
d) 1 Restlessness.
e) 2 Diaphoresis (perspiration, often perfuse).
f) 3 A distressed facial expression. 4 Withdrawal.
(d) You may have to help arrange for a place in the hospital to have a male child circumcised.
(e) Arrange for a Rabbi to visit the patient on Saturdays or special holidays.

b. The Protestant Faith.
(1) Practices.
(a) There are many denominations in the Protestant faith. Most denominations recognize two sacraments: Baptism and Communion.
(b) A person may be baptized by a layperson, such as a nurse, in an emergency.
(c) Christmas and Easter are the most important Christian holidays for Protestants, as for other Christians.
(2) Nursing implications.
(a) Ask the patient if he/she would like a visit from a Minister or other member of the church.
(b) In the event of an emergency in which an infant or adult may become critical and/or die, the nurse may baptize the patient, if asked, or may do it if he/she (the nurse) thinks it may be comforting to the patient and/or family.
(c) Inquire about any specific dietary or religious practices and provide this information to the appropriate person.
c. The Roman Catholic Faith.
(1) Practices.
(a) The Roman Catholic Church considers Baptism, Confession, Holy Communion, and the Sacrament of the Sick as basic sacraments of the Church.
(b) During a long illness, a Catholic patient usually wants a priest to hear confession and to give communion. At such times, the nurse should provide as much privacy as possible.
(c) Death is viewed from three aspects:
g) 1 Visible reaction: emphasis on faith in God.
h) 2 Fear of dying and of judgment: trying to get life in order.
i) 3 Desire for death: emphasis on returning to God.
(d) The last rites of the Church (Sacrament of the Sick)
j) 1 A vital part of the Catholic faith.
k) 2 Comforts both the patient and the family members.
(e) Easter and Christmas are the most important holidays in the Roman Catholic faith.
(f) Many Catholics abstain from or restrict their intake of meat during Lent, which is the 40-day period from Ash Wednesday to Easter. Some have maintained the custom of abstaining from meat on Fridays.
(2) Nursing implications.
(a) In case of an emergency or impending death, a member of the nursing staff may perform a Baptism.
(b) If a patient is brought into the hospital unconscious or in a serious condition and found to have a rosary, Catholic medal, or identification card indicating that the patient is Catholic, a priest should be called so the patient may have the Sacrament of the Sick.
(3) If a patient wishes to abstain from meat because of a religious holiday, inform the dietician or head nurse so that arrangements can be made.
(4) During important holidays, the patient may want to see a priest and/or attend Mass.
d. Christian Science.
(1) Practices.
(a) Christian Scientists do not permit surgery or many other forms of medical care.
(b) They believe that all illness is mental in origin.
(c) They believe that illness can be cured by appropriate mental processes.
(d) Treatment consists of prayer and counsel for the sick person; healing is carried out by certified practitioners.
(e) Healing is highly intellectual.
(f) There is no formal clergy.
(2) Nursing implications.
(a) Because surgery or other medical care is not permitted, often legal intervention must be obtained in order to give care in an emergency situation.
(b) Because there is no formal clergy, arrangements may have to be made to have other church members visit the patient.
e. The Latter Day Saints.
(1) Practices.
(a) Mormons are members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.
(b) They believe in the laying on of hands in treating deformities.
(c) They do not use tobacco; drink stimulants (such as coffee, tea, or cola drinks) or alcoholic beverages; or consume chocolate.
(2) Nursing implications.
(a) Inform the dietician or Head Nurse of the patient's dietary requirements.
(b) Ask the patient if he/she has any particular religious practices he/she wishes to follow and adhere to them if possible.