This section covers the basic procedures for laying out wood frame walls with correctly sized window and door openings and partitions.
Later in this module, you will be introduced to methods for framing with metal studs, and framing window and door openings in masonry walls.
Wall framing is generally done with 2 X 4 studs spaced 16” on center. In a one-storey building, 2 X 4 spacing can be 24” on center. If 24” spacing is used in a two-storey building, the lower floor must be framed with 2 X 6 lumber.
The floor plan drawings for a building show the location of windows and doors.
Avoid placing horizontal framework of windows at eye level. This means you have to consider whether people will generally be sitting or standing when they look out the window.
The window and door schedules will sometimes provide the rough opening dimensions for windows and doors. Another good source of information is the manufacture's catalog.
Measuring and Cutting Studs
It is extremely important to precisely measure the first one of each type of stud that will be used (common, trimmer, and cripple) as a template for the others.
Common and King Studs
To determine the stud length when the installation is directly on a concrete slab, simply subtract the thickness of the soleplate (1 ½”) and double top plate (3”) from the desired ceiling height and add the thickness of the ceiling material.
The length of a window or door trimmer stud is determined by subtracting the thickness of the soleplate from the height of the header. If the installation is on a wood floor, the thickness of the underlayment also needs to be subtracted.
To determine the length of a cripple stud above a door or window: Combine the height of the trimmer and the thickness of the header. Subtract that total from the length of a regular stud.
To determine the length of a cripple stud below a window:
Determine the height of the rough opening from the floor.
Subtract the combined thickness of the rough sill and soleplate.