(casi todo es perjudicial para el medio)
This products are divided by their boiling points temperatures.
What is octane?
Is paraffin wax toxic?
Other products created during the refining of petroleum include the following:
• Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
• Mineral Oil
• Bitumen (asphalt and tar)
Kerosene is a colourless flammable hydrocarbon liquid. Kerosene is obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum at 150 °C and 275 °C (carbon chains from C12 to C15 range). Typically, kerosene directly distilled from crude oil requires some treatment in an hydro-treater, to reduce its sulfur content.
At one time it was widely used in kerosene lamps but it is now mainly used in aviation fuel for jet engines. A form of kerosene known as RP-1 is burnt with liquid oxygen as rocket fuel. Its use as a cooking fuel is mostly restricted to some portable stoves in less developed countries, where it is usually less refined and contains impurities and even debris.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
LPG is manufactured during the refining of crude oil, or extracted from oil or gas streams as they emerge from the ground. LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in cooking, heating appliances, vehicles, and increasingly replacing fluorocarbons as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant to reduce damage to the ozone layer.
Varieties of LPG bought and sold include mixes that are primarily propane, mixes that are primarily butane, and mixes including both propane and butane, depending on the season. A powerful odorant, ethanethiol, is added so that leaks can be detected easily.
At normal temperatures and pressures, LPG will evaporate. Because of this, LPG is supplied in pressurized steel bottles. In order to allow for thermal expansion of the contained liquid, these bottles are filled to between 80% and 85% of their capacity.
A lubricant is introduced between two moving surfaces to reduce the friction and wear between them. A lubricant provides a protective film which allows for two touching surfaces to be separated, thus lessening the friction between them.
Typically lubricants contain 90% base oil and less than 10% additives. Vegetable oils or synthetic liquids such as hydrogenated polyolefins, esters, silicone, fluorocarbons and many others are sometimes used as base oils. Additives deliver reduced friction and wear, increased viscosity, resistance to corrosion and oxidation, aging or contamination.
In developed nations, lubricants contribute to nearly 25% of total pollution released to environment. Spent lubricants are referred to as used oil or waste oil. As a liquid waste, one liter of used oil can contaminate one million liters of water.
Mineral oil is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. It is a chemically-inert, transparent and colourless oil composed mainly of alkanes and cyclic paraffins, related to white petroleum. Mineral oil is a substance of relatively low value, and is produced in a very large quantities. Mineral oil is available in light and heavy grades, and can often be found in drug stores.
Some of its uses include the following:
• Mineral oil is used to store and transport alkali metals. The oil prevents the metals from reacting with atmospheric moisture.
• Used as an ingredient in baby lotions, cold creams, ointments and other pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
• It is used as a lubricant and coolant.
Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2 , where n is greater than about 20. It is also called paraffin wax. Paraffin is also a technical name for an alkane in general, but in most cases it refers specifically to a linear, or normal alkane, while branched, or isoalkanes are also called isoparaffins.
It is mostly found as a white, odourless, tasteless, waxy solid, with a typical melting point between about 47 ºC to 65 ºC. It is insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, benzene, and certain esters. Paraffin is unaffected by most common chemical reagents, but burns readily.
Liquid paraffin has a number of names, including nujol, mineral spirits, adepsine oil, alboline, glymol, liquid paraffin oil, saxol, or USP mineral oil.
Paraffin is used in:
• Candle making
• Coatings for waxed paper or cloth
• Coatings for many kinds of hard cheeses
• As a food additive
• Preparing specimens for histology
• Solid propellant for hybrid rockets
• Sealing jars, cans, and bottles
• In dermatology, as an emollient (moisturizer)
• Surfing, for grip on surfboards as a component of surfwax
• As anticaking, moisture repellent and dust binding coatings for fertilizers
• The primary component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards
Bitumen is a category of organic liquids that are highly viscous, black, sticky and wholly soluble in carbon disulfide. Asphalt and tar are the most common forms of bitumen.
Bitumen in the form of asphalt is obtained by fractional distillation of crude oil. Bitumen being the heaviest and being the fraction with the highest boiling point, it appears as the bottommost fraction.
Bitumen in the form of tar is obtained by the destructive distillation of organic matter, usually bituminous coal. Bitumen is primarily used for paving roads. It is also the prime feed stock for petroleum production from tar sands currently under development in Alberta, Canada. In the past, bitumen was used to waterproof boats, and even as a coating for buildings.
As well as various grades of fuel oil and gasoline, refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials.
A petrochemical is any chemical derived from fossil fuels. These include purified fossil fuels such as methane, propane, butane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, or fuel oil and also include many agricultural chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers, and other items such as plastics, asphalt and synthetic fibers.
As petroleum products are feed stocks for many industries, frequently chemical plants are sited adjacent to a refinery, utilizing intermediate products of the refinery as feed stocks for the production of specialized materials such as plastics or agrochemicals.
Petroleum products serve as the primary source for the energy we need, as well as a raw material for petrochemical industries. Petroleum is a non-renewable natural resource and the oil industry is faced with the eventual depletion of the world’s oil supply. By the very definition of non-renewable resources, oil exploration alone will not prevent future shortages of petroleum.
Resource economists argue that oil prices will rise as demand increases relative to supply, and that this will spur further exploration and development. However, this process will not increase the amount of oil in the ground, rather will temporarily prolong production as higher prices make it economical to extract oil that was previously not economically recoverable.