El petroleo tiene distintos usos dependiendo la etapa
se le pueden dar muchos usos útiles al petroleo en sus diferentes etapas.
What is fracking distillation?
The petroleum industry can be divided into two broad groups:
• upstream producers (exploration, development and production of crude oil or natural gas) and
• downstream transporters (tanker, pipeline transport), refiners, retailers, and consumers.
Raw oil or unprocessed crude oil is not very useful in the form it comes in out of the ground. It needs to be broken down into parts and refined before use in a solid material such as plastics and foams, or as petroleum fuels as in the case of automobile and air plane engines. An oil refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed in three ways in order to be useful petroleum products.
Separation - Separates crude oil into various fractions
Oil can be used in so many various ways because it contains hydrocarbons of varying molecular masses and lengths such as paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes (or cycloalkanes), alkenes, dienes, and alkynes.
Hydrocarbons are molecules of varying length and complexity made of hydrogen and carbon. The trick in the separation of different streams in oil refinement process is the difference in boiling points between the hydrocarbons, which means they can be separated by distillation.
The diagram shows the typical distillation scheme of an oil refinery.
Hydrocarbons can be separated by distillation because they contain molecules of varying molecular masses and lengths.
Conversion - Conversion to seleable products by skeletal alteration
Once separated and any contaminants and impurities have been removed, the oil can be either sold without any further processing, or smaller molecules such as isobutene and propylene or butylenes can be recombined to meet specified octane number requirements by processes such as alkylation or less commonly, dimerization.
Octane number requirement can also be improved by catalytic reforming, which strips hydrogen out of hydrocarbons to produce aromatics, which have higher octane ratings. Intermediate products such as gas-oils can even be reprocessed to break a heavy, long-chained oil into a lighter short-chained one, by various forms of cracking such as Fluid Catalytic Cracking, Thermal Cracking, and Hydro-cracking.
Finishing - purification of the product streams
The final step in gasoline production is the blending of fuels with different octane ratings, vapour pressures, and other properties to meet product specification. These methods are described in more detail in the next section.
• Atmospheric Distillation Unit
• Vacuum Distillation Unit
• Hydro-treater Unit
• Catalytic Reformer Unit
• Fluid Catalytic Cracking
• Hydro-cracker Unit
• Alkylation Unit
• Dimerization Unit
• Isomerization Unit
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