Cuanto demorara el hombre explotando este material para la obtencion de energia
actualmente somos muy dependientes del oro negro, el cual utilizamos para satisfacer nuestras necesidades básicas, se han descubierto mejores materias primas y lo mas importante, que estas sean amigables con el medio ambiente.
We have three types of categories light distillates,middle distillates and heavy distillates.Light distillates example gasoline and middle distillates e.g diesel.
We have Liquefied petroleum gas referred to as simply propane and butane mixture of hydrocarbons gases.When used as vehicle fuel is called Auto gas.Liquefied gas is heavier than gas.
What is vapor pressure?
Petroleum is oily, flammable, thick dark brown or greenish liquid that occurs naturally in deposits, usually beneath the surface of the earth. It is also called crude oil. Petroleum means rock oil, (Petra - rock, elaion - oil, Greek and oleum - oil, Latin), the name inherited for its discovery from the sedimentary rocks.
It is used mostly for producing fuel oil, which is the primary energy source today. Petroleum is also the raw material for many chemical products, including solvents, fertilizers, pesticides and plastics. For its high demand in our day-to-day life, it is also called as ‘black gold’.
Oil in general has been used since early human history to keep fires ablaze. Its importance in the world economy evolved slowly. Wood and coal were used to heat and cook, while whale oil was used for lighting. Whale oil however, produced a black, smelly, thick liquid known as tar or rock oil and was seen as a substance to avoid.
When the whaling industry hunted the sperm whale almost to extinction and the industrial revolution needed a fuel to run generators and engines, a new source of energy was needed. In the search for new products, it was discovered that, from crude oil or petroleum, kerosene could be extracted and used as a light and heating fuel. Petroleum was in great demand by the end of the 1800’s, forcing the creation of the petroleum industry.
Petroleum is often considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry. For its high energy content and ease of use, petroleum remains as the primary energy source.
Fuel Energy Density
Petroleum or Crude oil 45 MJ/Kg
Coal 24 MJ/Kg
Natural Gas 34 - 38 MJ/m3
Oil accounts for 40% of the United States\' energy supply and a comparable percentage of the world’s energy supply. The United States currently consumes 7.5 billion barrels (1.2 km3 , 1 barrel = 159 litre or 35 gallon) of oil per year, while the world at large consumes 30 billion barrels (4.8 km3). Petroleum is unequally distributed throughout the world. The United States, and most of the world, are net importers of the resource.
Origin of Petroleum - Biogenic theory
Most geologists view crude oil, like coal and natural gas, as the product of compression and heating of ancient vegetation over geological time scales.
According to this theory, it is formed from the decayed remains of prehistoric marine animals and terrestrial plants. Over many centuries this organic matter, mixed with mud, is buried under thick sedimentary layers of material.
The high levels of heat and pressure cause the biological remains to metamorphose, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, and then into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis.
These then migrate through adjacent rock layers until they become trapped underground in porous rocks called reservoirs, forming an oil field, from which the liquid can be extracted by drilling and pumping.
150 m is generally considered the “oil window”. Though this corresponds to different depths for different locations around the world, a ‘typical’ depth for an oil window might be 4-5 km. Three situations must be present for oil reservoirs to form:
• a rich source rock,
• a migration conduit, and
• a trap (seal) that forms the reservoir.
The reactions that produce oil and natural gas are often modeled as first order breakdown reactions, where kerogen breaks down to oil and natural gas by another set of reactions.
Origin of Petroleum - Abiogenic theory
In 1911, Engler proposed that an organic substance other than coal was the source material of petroleum. He proposed the following three stages of development:
1. In the first stage, animal and vegetable deposits accumulate at the bottom of island seas and are then decomposed by bacteria, the water soluble components are removed and fats, waxes and other fat-soluble and stable materials remain.
2. In the second stage, high temperature and pressure cause carbon dioxide to be produced from carboxyl-containing compounds, and water is produced from the hydroxyl acids and alcohols to yield a bituminous residue. There can also be a little cracking, producing a liquid product with a high olefin content (petropetroleum).
3. In the third stage, the unsaturated compounds are polymerized to naphthenic and/or paraffinic hydrocarbons. Aromatics are presumed to be formed either by cracking and cyclization or decomposition of petroleum . The elements of this theory has survived; the only objection to it is that the end products obtained from the same sequence of experiments namely, paraffins and unsaturated hydrocarbons differ from those of petroleum.
Composition of Petroleum
Petroleum is a combination of gaseous, liquid and solid mixtures of many alkanes. It consists principally of a mixture of hydrocarbons, with traces of various nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds.
Gaseous petroleum consists of lighter hydrocarbons with abundant methane content and is termed as ‘natural gas’.
Liquid petroleum not only consists of liquid hydrocarbons but also includes dissolved gases, waxes (solid hydrocarbons) and bituminous material.
Solid petroleum consists of heavier hydrocarbons and this bituminous material is usually referred to as bitumen or asphalt.
Along with these, petroleum also contains smaller amounts of nickel, vanadium and other elements.
Large deposits of petroleum have been found in widely different parts of the world and their chemical composition varies greatly. Consequently the elemental composition of petroleum vary greatly from crude oil to crude oil.
It is not surprising that the composition varies, since the local distribution of plant, animal and marine life is quite varied and presumably was similarly varied when the petroleum precursors formed. Furthermore, the geological history of each deposit is different and allows for varying chemistry to have occurred as the organic matter originally deposited matured into petroleum.