coal formation begins with what?
coal formation begins with what?
I think the world should begin to or if it has started, continue to accelerate efforts toward extracting energy in a cleaner way from coal since it is now clear this will last longer than other fossil fuels, and producing energy otherwise will not be welcomed in the face of a threathening climate change consequences.
el carbón es un combustible muy abundante para el planeta tierra. aunque deberíamos pensar en otro método de generación de energía puesto que el carbón contamina mucho el medio ambiente.
Coal was formed during Carboniferous era millions years ago.
What is carbon piling?
What is carbon sequestration?
Which factors influence coal formation?
Coal originate from Carboniferous era millions years ago supported by Forests environment of that time.
Why do we rely so much on coal to meet our energy needs?
The most appealing quality of coal is that there is plenty of it. Coal is twice as important globally as any other fuel in generating electricity, and could remain so for the next 200 years. That is reassuring for a future where energy demands continue to increase and when the alternatives to coal are currently looking less dependable.
The downside is that continued burning of coal could have dire consequences for the environment in the coming centuries, unless \'cleaner\' ways can be found to harness energy from it.
If you examine a piece of coal, at first sight it appears black and rather homogenous. However, closer inspection generally shows a series of parallel bands up to a few millimetres thick. Most obvious are shiny bands that break into angular pieces if struck. Between them are layers of dull, relatively hard coal and thin weak layers of charcoal-like carbon. Coal splits easily along these weak layers, which crumble to give coal its characteristic dusty black coating.
Microscopic examination suggest that coal formed from the highly compressed remains of land plants. Further evidence for this is provided by the preservation of individual plant fragments in sediments associated with beds of coal.
Coal formation begins with preservation of waterlogged plant remains to produce peat and then slow compression as the peat is buried. About 10 m of peat will compress down to form about 1 m of coal.
Clearly large amounts of plant debris must be available for preservation. Even so, for a significant thickness of peat to accumulate there must be a balance between the growth of plants and the decay of underlying dead material to form peat (a process known as humification).
Such a balance occurs in areas of poorly drained land known as mires (swamps).Whilst there are different types of mire, they all require the water table to be at or above the land surface for most, if not all of the year.
This waterlogging of mire soils restricts the supply of oxygen. Such anoxic conditions prevent the complete decay of plant matter to carbon dioxide and water by aerobic bacteria. Instead, anaerobic bacteria convert some into methane, thereby reducing the hydrogen content of the decayed matter and increasing its carbon content, which is essential for the formation of coal.
Rapid burial ensures that plant material decays and compacts fast enough to accommodate new plant growth in the mire above.
The process of humification is fast in hot, humid tropical areas, but peat also accumulates in cooler, higher latitudes providing a humid climate is maintained. In regions such as Siberia and Canada, mosses rather than trees are the primary source of plant material.
Currently, 3% of the Earth\'s surface is covered by peat. However, not all of this is likely to form coal in the future.
Since mires require poor drainage, low-lying land close to coastal areas might provide the right conditions for peat to form.
Most extensive areas of modern peat formation are indeed situated not far above sea-level, and they are commonly associated with river deltas and coastal barriers. Such environments would also have been significant areas of peat production in the geological past.
However, the flooding of an area alone does not guarantee significant accumulations of peat - high productivity of organic matter is also required.
Deltas act as conduits bringing sediment via distributary river channels out into an open body of water (often the sea).
In between these river channels are areas that receive less sediment, and it is here that high rates of subsidence and organic matter production may promote the development of mires.