The many sources of values include?
the many sources of values include.
Values create communities out of individuals.
What are Environmental ethics?
Value is used here not in its numerical sense, but to mean something that an individual or group regards as something good that gives meaning to life. Values can also be thought of as deeply held views, of what we find worthwhile.
They come from many sources: parents, religion, schools, peers, people we admire and culture.
Examples of values an individual may hold are those associated with: creativity, honesty, money, nature, working with others.
Values that affect decision making may be collective as well as individual. The following set of values has been identified by a collective process as those underpinning the United Nations Millennium Declaration. They are clearly thought by a group of people, not just an individual, to be important.
The Millennium Declaration (United Nations General Assembly, 2000, Section 1, p. 2) - which outlines 60 goals for peace, development, the environment, human rights, the vulnerable, hungry and poor, Africa, and the United Nations - is founded on a core set of values described as follows:
‘We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the 21st Century. These include: Freedom, Equality, Solidarity, Tolerance, Respect for nature and Shared responsibility.'
Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights.
No individual and no nation must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured.
Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most.
Human beings must respect one another, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilisations should be actively promoted.
Respect for nature.
Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants.
Responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to international peace and security, must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multi-laterally. As the most universal and most representative organisation in the world, the United Nations must play the central role.
The ways in which values affect decision making can be highly variable. Two people or organisations who espouse the same value such as say ‘shared responsibility’ may mean quite different things by it and it is common for differences in values to surface in the process of judgement or negotiation rather than in high-level discussions.
Value judgments often lie behind our approaches to decision making. Deciding what to keep, throw away or destroy for instance, whether at an individual or collective level is a process affected by values.
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