what is borehole?
in your own words define water abstration
Water abstraction is about water taken from natural body by machinery by humans.
What is a borehole?
Water abstraction is the pulling of water from natural water body through human made machinery.
What is a borehole?
The quantities of fresh water abstracted for various purposes in England and Wales are given in Table 1. Water is abstracted under licences from the Enivironmental Agency (EA), issued on the basis of the reasonable needs of the public, industry and agriculture and availability of supplies.
The public water supply is the water abstracted, purified and distributed through water mains to houses, offices, some industries and farms by the water companies. The other types of users given in Table 1 get much of their water directly from rivers or the ground without going through the treatment works and distribution system of the public water supply.
Industry, power stations and farms often do not require high-quality water, so it is cheaper to abstract water directly than to use the more expensive, high-quality public water supply.
In England and Wales the direct abstraction of water is permitted only where it is licensed by the Environmental Agency (EA), which has to ensure that there is enough water available and that it will not affect other abstractions.
For example, if an industry or power station takes water directly from a river, the EA has to make sure that there is still enough water in the river at all times, and will license abstraction only up to a certain quantity.
The largest use of water is for electricity generation. Because of the enormous quantities of water required, power stations are situated on major rivers, lakes or on the coast. The main use of water is for cooling, and this water can be of low quality. Even more water is obtained from estuaries (brackish water) and the sea (saline water).
The water used for cooling is returned to its source relatively quickly but some 5 °C warmer. There are considerable year-to-year fluctuations in the amount of water used for electricity generation. Some power stations recycle cooling water - this is not a continuous yearly demand but is a ‘one-off’ abstraction that stays within the cooling systems and is never returned.
Direct abstraction by industry generally reduced during the 1980s, falling by 42% between 1980 and 1988. It increased slightly after 1998. The main causes for the reduction were the more efficient use of water, including recycling, and changes in the structure of British industry, including the contraction of some of the major water-using industries, such as steel-making.
Agriculture consumes only a small proportion of the total water abstracted, although, on a global scale, irrigation is the greatest use of water.
There is sufficient rainfall for agriculture over Wales and the western and northern parts of England so irrigation is used mainly in the drier central, southern and eastern parts of England, particularly in East Anglia. Irrigation water is usually obtained by direct abstraction from rivers and boreholes and it can be of low quality.