eutrophycation occur only inside water ? or we can also found it in terrestrial vegetation
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One of the causes are nitrates from farming industries and phosphates from domestic use.
What is blue green algae?
Eutrophication of habitat can occur without human interference. Nutrient enrichment may affect habitats of any initial trophic state, causing distinctive changes to plant and animal communities.
The process of primary succession is normally associated with a gradual eutrophication of a site as nutrients are acquired and stored by vegetation both as living tissue and organic matter in the soil.
There is a long-standing theory that most water bodies go through a gradual process of nutrient enrichment as they age: a process referred to as natural eutrophication. All lakes, ponds and reservoirs have a limited lifespan, varying from a few years for shallow water bodies to millions of years for deep crater lakes created by movements of the Earth's crust.
They fill in gradually with sediment and eventually became shallow enough for plants rooted in the bed sediment to dominate, at which point they develop into a closed swamp or fen and are eventually colonized by terrestrial vegetation.
Nutrient enrichment occurs through addition of sediment, rainfall and the decay of resident animals and plants and their excreta. Starting from an oligotrophic state with low productivity, a typical temperate lake increases in productivity fairly quickly as nutrients accumulate, before reaching a steady state of eutrophy which might last for a very long time (perhaps thousands of years).
While eutrophication does occur independently of human activity, increasingly it is caused, or amplified, by human inputs. Human activities are causing pollution of water bodies and soils to occur to an unprecedented degree, resulting in an array of symptomatic changes in water quality and in species and communities of associated organisms.
For any ecosystem, whether aquatic or terrestrial, nutrient status plays a major part in determining the range of organisms likely to occur. Characteristic assemblages of plant and associated animal species are found in water with different trophic states.
Human activities worldwide have caused the nitrogen and phosphorus content of many rivers to double and, in some countries, local increases of up to 50 times have been recorded.
For example, eutrophication has damaged a large number of sites of special scientific interest (SSSIs) designated in the UK under the Wildlife and Countryside Act of 1981. English Nature has identified a total of 90 lake SSSIs and 12 river SSSIs that have been adversely affected. Artificial eutrophication in rivers is even more widespread than in lakes and reservoirs.
Eutrophication has also become a problem for terrestrial wildlife. Deposition of atmospheric nitrogen and the use of nitrogen-rich and phosphorus-rich fertilizers in agriculture has resulted in nutrient enrichment of soils and has caused associated alteration of terrestrial plant and animal communities.
Some of the effects of large-scale eutrophication have adverse consequences for people, and efforts to manage or reduce eutrophication in different countries now cost substantial sums of money.
Removing nitrates from water supplies in England and Wales cost £20 million in 1995. Higher frequency of algal blooms increases the costs of filtration for domestic water supply and may cause detectable tastes and odours due to the secretion of organic compounds.
If the bloom is large, these compounds can accumulate to concentrations that are toxic to mammals and sometimes fish. Furthermore, the high productivity of the blooms means that although oxygen is released by photosynthesis during the day, the effect of billions of cells respiring overnight can deplete the water of oxygen, resulting in fish dying through suffocation even if they tolerate the toxins.
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