what are the other processes that contribute to sediment or silts to water bodies.
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Hay varios agentes que contaminan el agua. estos pueden causar varias enfermedades en los seres humanos y animales. es muy fácil contaminar el agua y muy difícil purificarla, todo depende del uso que se le de para que esta pueda ser reutilizada. las fuentes que mas contaminan el agua son las industrias, pero si se tiene en cuenta la contaminación del agua por habitante es daño es inmenso e incalculable debido a que solo muy pocos saben como utilizar el agua para que cuando realice su ciclo no deteriore al medio ambiente y pueda volverse a utilizar.
Water pollution deny us the right to portable water.Only 3% of fresh water is available for drinking in the world.
What is Eutrophication?
What is E coli?
Water pollution is the major cause of various diseases like cholera and typhoid.
The eight classes of water pollutants are:
• infectious agents,
• oxygen-depleting wastes,
• inorganic chemicals,
• organic chemicals,
• plant nutrient pollutants,
• radioactive materials and
• thermal pollution.
Infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and parasitic worms enter water from human and animal waste.
They can cause diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, hepatitis, amoebic dysentery, and schistosomiasis, a condition marked by blood loss and tissue damage.
Oxygen-depleting wastes include animal manure in feedlot and farm runoff, plant debris, industrial discharge, and urban sewage.
They are consumed by aerobic bacteria. Excessive growth of these organisms can deplete water of dissolved oxygen which leads to eutrophication and the eventual death of oxygen consuming aquatic life.
Inorganic chemical pollutants include mineral acids, toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, mercury, and hexavalent chromium, and mineral salts. They are found in industrial discharge, chemicals in household wastewater, and seepage from municipal dumps and landfills.
The presence of inorganic chemical pollutants in water can render it undrinkable, as well as cause cancer and birth defects. In addition, sufficient concentrations of these chemicals in water can kill fish and other aquatic life, cause lower crop yields due to plant damage, and corrode metals.
Organic chemical pollutants encompass a wide variety of compounds including oil, gasoline, pesticides, and organic solvents. They all degrade the quality of the water into which they are discharged.
Sources of these pollutants include industrial discharge and runoff from farms and urban areas. Sometimes these chemicals enter aquatic ecosystems directly when sprayed on lakes and ponds (e.g. for mosquito control). These types of chemicals can cause cancer, damage the central nervous system and cause birth defects in humans.
Plant nutrient pollutants are found mainly in urban sewage, runoff from farms and gardens, and household wastewater.
These chemicals include nitrates (NO3-), phosphates (PO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) salts commonly found in fertilizers and detergents.
Too much plant nutrients in the water can cause excessive algae growth in lakes or ponds. This, in turn, results in the production of large amounts of oxygen-depleting wastes. The subsequent loss of dissolved oxygen causes eutrophication of the lakes or ponds.
Erosion of soils is the main process contributing sediments or silts to water bodies. Sediments can cloud the water of streams and rivers, reducing the amount of available sunlight to aquatic plants. The concurrent reduction in photosynthesis can disrupt the local ecosystem.
Soil from croplands deposited in lakes and streams can carry pesticides, bacteria, and other substances that are harmful to aquatic life. Sediments can also fill up or clog lakes, reservoirs, and waterways limiting human use and disrupting habitats.
Radioactive materials such as iodine-131 and strontium-90 are found in nuclear power plant effluents and fallout from atmospheric nuclear testing.
They can be introduced into the food chain through plants and become incorporated in body tissues of humans and animals.
Their ionizing radiation can produce cancers, especially in the thyroid and bone where they tend to concentrate.
A power generating plant commonly discharges water used for cooling into a nearby river, lake, or ocean. Because the discharged water can be significantly warmer than the ambient environment, it represents a source of thermal pollution.
Industrial discharges are also sources of thermal pollution. The increased temperature of the water may locally deplete dissolved oxygen and exceed the range of tolerance of some aquatic species, thus disrupting the local ecosystem.
Processing water in treatment plants can reduce the amounts of infectious agents, oxygen-depleting wastes, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and plant nutrients.
Bans and restrictions on the use of certain chemicals, such as those on DDT and hexavalent chromium compounds, are also very helpful in reducing the amounts of these chemicals in the environment.
By limiting exposure to these harmful substances, their negative effects on humans and local ecosystems can be greatly reduced.