what is flood irrigation?
Paddy fields need more water than other crops, is it true?
la agricultura es la principal fuente que usa el agua.
¿que es percolacion?
Sustainable agriculture is the way to go because it saves water.
Which elements make water compound?
Agriculture is the single largest user of water in the world. Most of that water is used for irrigating crops. Irrigation is the process of transporting water from one area to another for the purpose of growing crops. The water used for irrigation usually comes from rivers or from groundwater pumped from wells. The main reason for irrigating crops is that it increases yields. It also allows the farming of marginal land in arid regions that would normally not support crops. There are several methods of irrigation:
• flood irrigation,
• furrow irrigation,
• drip irrigation and
• center pivot irrigation.
Flood irrigation involves the flooding of a crop area located on generally at land. This gravity flow method of water is relatively easy to implement, especially if the natural flooding of river plains is utilized, and therefore is cost effective. However, much of the water used in flood irrigation is lost, either by evaporation or by percolation into soil adjacent to the intended area of irrigation.
Because farmland must be flat for flood irrigation to be used, flood irrigation is only practical in certain areas (e.g. river flood plains and bottomlands). In addition, because land is completely flooded, salts from the irrigation water can build-up in the soil, eventually rendering it infertile.
Furrow irrigation also involves gravity flow of water on relatively flat land. However, in this form of
Irrigation, the water flow is confined to furrows or ditches between rows of crops. This allows better control of the water and, therefore, less water is needed and less is wasted.
Because water can be delivered to the furrows from pipes, the land does not need to be completely flat. However, furrow irrigation involves higher operating costs than flood irrigation due to the increased labour and equipment required. It, too, involves large evaporative loss.
Drip irrigation involves delivering small amounts of water directly to individual plants. Water is
released through perforated tubing mounted above or below ground near the roots of individual plants. This method was originally developed in Israel for use in arid regions having limited water available for irrigation. It is highly efficient, with little waste of water.
Some disadvantages of drip irrigation are the high costs of installation and maintenance of the system. Therefore, it is only practical for use on high-value cash crops.
Center-pivot sprinkler systems deliver water to crops from sprinklers mounted on a long boom, which
rotates about a center pivot. Water is pumped to the pivot from a nearby irrigation well. This system has the advantage that it is very mobile and can be moved from one field to another as needed. It can also be used on uneven cropland, as the moving boom can follow the contours of the land.
Center-pivot systems are widely used in the western plains and southwest regions of the United States. With proper management, properly designed systems can be almost as efficient as drip irrigation systems. Center-pivot systems have high initial costs and require a nearby irrigation well capable of providing a sufficiently high flow. Constant irrigation with well water can also lead to salinization of the soil.
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