what is the tar compotional formulae in chemistry , what is composed
define tar sand.
What is oil sands?
What is bitumen?
Developing tar sands is similar to developing oil shale.
Oil shale and tar sands are the least utilized fossil fuel sources. However, oil shale is plentiful, with estimated reserves totaling 3 trillion barrels of recoverable shale oil. These reserves alone could satisfy the world's oil needs for about 100 years.
The largest tar-sand deposit in the world is in Canada and contains enough material (about 500 billion barrels) to supply the world with oil for about 15 years.
Oil shale is sedimentary rock with very fine pores that contain kerogen, a carbon-based, waxy substance. If shale is heated to 490ºC, the kerogen vaporizes and can then be condensed as shale oil, a thick viscous liquid. This shale oil is generally further refined into usable oil products.
Production of shale oil requires large amounts of energy for mining and processing the shale. Indeed about a half barrel of oil is required to extract every barrel of shale oil.
Environmental problems associated with oil shale recovery include: large amounts of water needed for processing, disposal of toxic waste water, and disruption of large areas of surface lands.
Tar sand is a type of sedimentary rock that is impregnated with a very thick crude oil. This thick crude does not flow easily and thus normal oil recovery methods cannot be used to mine it.
If tar sands are near the surface, they can be mined directly. In order to extract the oil from deep-seated tar sands, however, steam must be injected into the reservoir to make the oil flow better and push it toward the recovery well.
The energy cost for producing a barrel of tar sand is similar to that for oil shale. However, because of environmental concerns and high production costs these tar sand fields are not being fully utilized.
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