what are the main problems caused by nuclear fuel energy
hay diferentes tipos de sistemas energéticos debido a la necesidad de proveer energía a la población actual. las reservas de combustibles fósiles son finitas y menos mal se están acabando. al momento de acabar esto hará que el ser humano busque efectivamente métodos para la generación de energía. los combustibles fósiles generan muchos químicos en diferentes estados que contaminan de manera directa la atmósfera, esto altera las condiciones climáticas causando dificultades para los seres humanos.
Coal energy is still widely used but is responsible for climate pollution.
What is industrial pollution?
The world’s current energy systems have been built around the many advantages of fossil fuels, and we now depend overwhelmingly upon them. Concerns that supplies will ‘run out’ in the short-to-medium term have probably been exaggerated, thanks to the continued discovery of new reserves and the application of increasingly advanced exploration technologies.
Nevertheless it remains the case that fossil fuel reserves are ultimately finite. In the long term they will eventually become depleted and substitutes will have to be found.
Fossil fuels have been concentrated by natural processes in relatively few countries. Two-thirds of the world’s proven oil reserves, for example, are located in the Middle East and North Africa.
This concentration of scarce resources has already led to major world crises and conflicts, such as the 1970s ‘oil crisis’ and the Gulf War in the 1990s. It has the potential to create similar, or even more severe, problems in the future.
Substantial rises in the price of oil can cause world-wide economic disruption and lead to widespread protests. The exploitation of fossil fuel resources entails significant health hazards. These can occur in the course of their extraction from the earth, for example in coal mining accidents or fires on oil or gas drilling rigs.
They can also occur during distribution, for example in oil spillages from tankers that pollute beaches and kill wildlife; or on combustion, which generates atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen that are detrimental to the environment and to health.
Fossil fuel combustion also generates very large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important anthropogenic (human-induced) greenhouse gas. The majority of the world’s scientists now believe that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing the earth’s temperature to increase at a rate unprecedented since the ending of the last ice age.
This is very likely to cause significant changes in the world’s climate system, leading to disruption of agriculture and ecosystems, to sea level rises that could overwhelm some low-lying countries, and to accelerated melting of glaciers and polar ice.
Nuclear power has grown in importance since its inception just after World War II and now supplies some 7% of world primary energy. A major advantage of nuclear power plants, in contrast with fossil fuelled plants, is that they do not emit greenhouse gases. Also, supplies of uranium, the principal nuclear fuel, are sufficient for many decades - and possibly centuries - of supply at current use rates.
However, the use of nuclear energy gives rise to problems arising from the routine emissions of radioactive substances, difficulties of radioactive waste disposal, and dangers from the proliferation of nuclear weapons material. To these must be added the possibility of major nuclear accidents which, though highly unlikely, could be catastrophic in their effects. Although some of these problems may be amenable to solution in the longer term, such solutions have not yet been fully developed.
Not all energy sources are of fossil or nuclear origin. The renewable energy sources, principally solar energy and its derivatives in the form of bioenergy, hydroelectricity, wind and wave power, are increasingly considered likely to play an important role in the sustainable energy systems of the future.
The ‘renewables’ are based on energy flows that are replenished by natural processes, and so do not become depleted with use as do fossil or nuclear fuels - although there may be other constraints on their use. The environmental impacts of renewable energy sources vary, but they are generally much lower than those of conventional fuels. However, the current costs of renewable energy sources are in many cases higher than those of conventional sources, and this has until recently retarded their deployment.
All these considerations suggest that in creating a sustainable energy future for humanity during the coming decades, it will be necessary:
1. to implement greatly improved technologies for harnessing the fossil and nuclear fuels, to ensure that their use, if continued, creates much lower environmental and social impact,
2. to develop and deploy the renewable energy sources on a much wider scale, and
3. to make major improvements in the efficiency of energy conversion, distribution and use.
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