I have learned and I can define the five layers in the atmosphere, that is really amazing. I learned about that back in the days but now I actually understand how the atmosphere goes, and its component. Is the troposphere the atmospheric layer that allows us to inspire, as it is the closest layer to the earth's surface and also it contains the greatest percentage of the mass of the atmosphere relative to the other layers. Furthermore gets about 99% of the total water vapor of the atmosphere.
The composition of the troposphere is so favourable to life some people are led to believe it represents design and defies chance-based evolution. This objection ignores geological evidence for an evolving atmosphere, which demonstrates that the earth started off sizzling hot without any free oxygen. Plants pumped that essential molecule into the air, and nitrogen stabilized it. Evolution explains the atmosphere's development scientifically; other explanations do not. Also, some assume that because our earth is so wonderfully suited to accommodate life, therefore it was designed for this purpose: but why not say life adjusted to its surroundings, than visa-versa?
The issue of earth's primordial atmosphere features in debates over the origins of life. 3.5 billion years ago, the first prokaryotic organism evolved. It was a simple, unicellular entity similar to the cyanobacteria. Skeptics of evolution think the evolution of life from non-life is impossible because the atmosphere prohibits amino acids and basic organic building blocks from forming a living cell. The presence of free oxygen, specifically, prohibits the production of prebiotic molecules (of the sort Carl Sagan postulated in his theories about a vast primordial ). Of course, the original atmosphere would have been anoxic because the elements of which it was made would consume all available oxygen until much later plants, together with an equilibriated mantle, could provide an oxidizing atmosphere. Thus, the development of prebiotic molecules necessary for abiogenesis (spontaneous generation of life) would not have been governed by this constraint. Without oxygen, however, ultraviolet light cannot be absorbed, thus reaching the surface and likewise assisting in the destruction of all prebiotics. This oxygen-ultraviolet paradox has been used as an argument for why the earth's early atmosphere could not have been conducive to the evolution of life, and instead would have harshly prohibited it. Why people would seek grounds on which to challenge a theory all scientists accept as generally close to what actually happened is not immediately evident (especially since most of the arguments are published in misplaced sources, i.e. pamphlets and booklets that are not peer-reviewed or submitted to the scrutiny of a scientific journal); but the answer becomes more obvious when we understand creationism. This is a particular concomitant of religious fundamentalism which takes the Bible as literal truth on all matters, including origins. It's also fueled by an unduly heavy reliance on intuition--even a study which sampled secular-educated high-school students showed they had to hesitate before affirming kinship with ocean-bottom dwelling creatures--which leads them to entertain the absurdity of distrusting scientists and relying on their own logic to tell them evolution defies possibility. Of course, evolution is "staggeringly counter-intuitive" so this isn't surprising . But can't creationists urge their ideas, if they want them to be heard, in scientific forums of debate, so they don't keep claiming evolutionists are "intellectually bankrupt"; (rather, most evolutionists don't even know a significant segment of the lay populace is receptive to anti-evolution propoganda, and most of them don't have time to refute creationist arguments). There is an enormous need for biologically and geologically educated scientists to get together and produce a comprehensive refutation of the arguments advanced against their unifying theory of evolution by the current crop of fundamentalists. When this happens, perplexed lay persons with the sense to trust the experts can have some proper counter-arguments to anti-evolution objections like the oxygen-ultraviolet paradox. The answer, so far as I have determined, is that if life really could not have in any conceivable fashion evolved on earth 3.5 billion years ago, then it must have evolved elsewhere. The discipline of astrobiochemistry is devoted to this search for extra-terrestrial prebiotics--so far, the results are encouraging because they demonstrate that basic organic building blocks exist in interstellar gas clouds.
what are northern lights?
What does the temperature of the stratosphere go up to?
Do planes normally fly in the troposphere region of the atmosphere? And is that also the region where clouds normally are?
Which region of the atmosphere is the trace element ozone found in?
here we studied the atmospere how it form and its different layer with detail.i really enjoyed it
La atmósfera es una mezcla de nitrógeno (78%), oxígeno (21%), y otros gases (1%) que rodea la Tierra. Alto sobre el planeta, la atmósfera se va haciendo más delgada hasta que gradualmente alcanza el espacio.
The atmosphere is the gaseous layer that surrounds the earth, and was formed over four billion years ago. During the evolution of the solid earth, volcanic eruptions released gases into the developing atmosphere.
Assuming the outgasing was similar to that of modern volcanoes, the gases released included: water vapor (H2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen (N2) and sulphur gases.
The atmosphere was reducing because there was no free oxygen. Most of the hydrogen and helium that outgassed would have eventually escaped into outer space due to the inability of the earth's gravity to hold on to their small masses.
There may have also been significant contributions of volatiles from the massive meteoritic bombardments known to have occurred early in the earth's history.
Water vapor in the atmosphere condensed and rained down, eventually forming lakes and oceans. The oceans provided homes for the earliest organisms which were probably similar to cyanobacteria. Oxygen was released into the atmosphere by these early organisms, and carbon became sequestered in sedimentary rocks.
This led to our current oxidizing atmosphere, which is mostly comprised of nitrogen (roughly 71%) and oxygen (roughly 28%). Water vapor, argon and carbon dioxide together comprise a much smaller fraction (roughly 1%). The atmosphere also contains several gases in trace amounts, such as helium, neon, methane and nitrous oxide. One very important trace gas is ozone, which absorbs harmful UV radiation from the sun.
The earth's atmosphere extends outward to about 1,000 kilometers where it transitions to interplanetary space. However, most of the mass of the atmosphere (greater than 99 percent) is located within the first 40 kilometers.
The sun and the earth are the main sources of radiant energy in the atmosphere. The sun's radiation spans the infrared, visible and ultraviolet light regions, while the earth's radiation is mostly infrared.
The vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere is variable and depends upon the types of radiation that affect each atmospheric layer. This, in turn, depends upon the chemical composition of that layer (mostly involving trace gases). Based on these factors, the atmosphere can be divided into four distinct layers:
• the troposphere,
• the stratosphere,
• the mesosphere, and
• the thermosphere.
The troposphere is the atmospheric layer closest to the earth's surface. It extends about 8 - 16 kilometers from the earth's surface. The thickness of the layer varies a few kilometers according to latitude and the season of the year. It is thicker near the equator and during the summer, and thinner near the poles and during the winter.
The troposphere contains the largest percentage of the mass of the atmosphere relative to the other layers. It also contains some 99 percent of the total water vapor of the atmosphere. The temperature of the troposphere is warm (roughly 17º C) near the surface of the earth. This is due to the absorption of infrared radiation from the surface by water vapor and other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane) in the troposphere.
The stratosphere is the next major atmospheric layer. This layer extends from the tropopause (roughly 12 kilometers) to roughly 50 kilometers above the earth's surface. The temperature profile of the stratosphere is quite different from that of the troposphere. The temperature remains relatively constant up to roughly 25 kilometers and then gradually increases up to the upper boundary of the layer.
The amount of water vapor in the stratosphere is very low, so it is not an important factor in the temperature regulation of the layer. Instead, it is ozone (O3) that causes the observed temperature inversion.
The third layer in the earth's atmosphere is called the mesosphere. It extends from the stratopause (about 50 kilometers) to roughly 85 kilometers above the earth's surface. Because the mesosphere has negligible amounts of water vapor and ozone for generating heat, the temperature drops across this layer. It is warmed from the bottom by the stratosphere.
The air is very thin in this region with a density about 1/1000 that of the surface. With increasing altitude this layer becomes increasingly dominated by lighter gases, and in the outer reaches, the remaining gases become stratified by molecular weight.
The fourth layer, the thermosphere, extends outward from about 85 kilometers to about 600 kilometers. Its upper boundary is ill defined. The temperature in the thermosphere increases with altitude, up to 1500 ºC or more. The high temperatures are the result of absorption of intense solar radiation by the last remaining oxygen molecules.
The lower region of the thermosphere (up to about 550 kilometers) is also known as the ionosphere. Because of the high temperatures in this region, gas particles become ionized. The ionosphere is important because it reflects radio waves from the earth's surface, allowing long-distance radio communication. The visual atmospheric phenomenon known as the northern lights also occurs in this region
The outer region of the atmosphere is known as the exosphere. The exosphere represents the final transition between the atmosphere and interplanetary space. It extends about 1000 kilometers and contains mainly helium and hydrogen. Most satellites operate in this region.