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I love the Taylorism methodology which ensures that new entry are been given the knowledge on the designed task(s). Unlike some organization, they always prefer experienced applicant which left me with this question; who will train them for you?
• Job analysis information can be gathered in a variety of ways. One consideration is who is to conduct the job analysis. Most frequently, a member of the HR staff coordinates this effort. Depending on which of the methods discussed next is used, others who often participate are managers, supervisors, and employees doing the jobs. For more complex analyses, industrial engineers may conduct time and motion studies. Another consideration is the method to be used. Common methods are observations, interviews, questionnaires, and specialized methods of analysis. Combinations of these approaches frequently are used, depending on the situation and the organization. Each of these methods is discussed in some detail next. Observation When the observation method is used, a manager, job analyst, or industrial engineer observes the individual performing the job and takes notes to describe the tasks and duties performed. Observation may be continuous or based on intermittent sampling. Use of the observation method is limited because many jobs do not have complete and easily observed job duties or complete job cycles. Thus, observation may be more useful for repetitive jobs and in conjunction with other methods. Managers or job analysts using other methods may watch parts of a job being performed to gain a general familiarity with the job and the conditions under which it is performed. Multiple observations on several occasions also will help them use some of the other job analysis methods more effectively. WORK SAMPLING As a type of observation, work sampling does not require attention to each detailed action throughout an entire work cycle. Instead, a manager can determine the content and pace of a typical workday through statistical sampling of certain actions rather than through continuous observation and timing of all actions. Work sampling is particularly useful for routine and repetitive jobs. EMPLOYEE DIARY/LOG Another method requires that employees “observe” their own performances by keeping a diary/log of their job duties, noting how frequently they are performed and the time required for each duty. Although this approach sometimes generates useful information, it may be burdensome for employees to compile an accurate log. Also, employees sometimes perceive this approach as creating needless documentation that detracts from the performance of their work. Interviewing The interview method of gathering information requires that a manager or HR specialist visit each job site and talk with the employees performing each job. A standardized interview form is used most often to record the information. Frequently, both the employee and the employee’s supervisor must be interviewed to obtain a complete understanding of the job.
For jobs to be successfully designed and employees motivated as well, what must be looked into is the values and strategies that the organization has.
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What is meant with the following: "Control of variance in production or services must be undertaken as close to their source as possible" and "Subsystems must be designed around relatively self-contained and recognisable units of work"?
job design is in line with motivational strategies, however much the job is designed well, the holder needs to be appreciated in order to encourage him or her and this helps both company and the employee
Simply put, the job design process must consider what must be done, how it must be done, how much will it cost to do it (salary; programme; technology and other infrastructure), how it links to other jobs in the team/unit and into the overall organisation. There are fancier terms (and software) for all of this but if we go back to consultants, then these (fancies) are what the charge huge fees for. Best to keep it simple!
If ongoing training is part of the job then you will attract the right person for the right job.
Job design, like any other organisational design element must, keep abreast of the times we live in. Evidenced by the JCM and the it has done so. however, this does not render older models nul and void.
Key to effectively crafting a meaningful job for an employee is starting the thought process by looking at the values and strategy of the organization. By framing the job in these contexts the job design process is more likely to align potential employees with the purpose of the company.
Once you have this context the following steps will ensure both meaningful and effective job design:
• Assess skills, needs, abilities, and motivations of employees and the organization.
• Design the job to meet those needs, abilities and motivations.
• Implement the new job design.
• Audit the success of the job design and begin with step one periodically as well as when problems have been identified.
Taylorism, also known as scientific management, is a foundation for management and managerial decisions. Frederick Taylor developed this theory in an effort to develop a “science” for every job within an organization.
Hertzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory attempts to uncover psychological needs of employees and enhance employee satisfaction. In regards to this theory employers are encouraged to design jobs that enhance and motivate employees beyond simply meeting a daily or weekly quota. This theory highlights the importance of rewards systems and monitoring when and how employees are rewarded. Simple recognition is often enough to motivate employees and increase job satisfaction.
More effective jobs can be created when specific goals are established. Goal setting theory as described by Edwin Locke mainly focuses on the motivational properties of task goals. Task goals can be highly motivating when set and managed properly. If a company wants to implement goal setting theory with regards to job design than a reasonable job criteria and description must be established.
Technology and the flattening of the global economy have contributed greatly to the changes we now see in jobs and job content across the world. We now recognize that a person presented with quality meaningful work is more likely to do that work well. Because of this insight, job design now presently takes a couple of prominent forms.
The first of which is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This job design practice is called Socio-Technical Systems (STS) approach.
Another modern job design theory is the Job Characteristics Model (JCM), which maintains five important elements that motivate workers and performance.
Socio-Technical Systems (STS) approach
This is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This approach has the following guiding principles:
• The design of the organization must fit its goals.
• Employees must be actively involved in designing the structure of the organization.
• Control of variances in production or service must be undertaken as close to their source as possible.
• Subsystems must be designed around relatively self-contained and recognizable units of work.
• Support systems must fit in with the design of the organization.
• The design should allow for a high quality of working life.
• Changes should continue to be made as necessary to meet the changing environmental pressures
Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
This model maintains five important elements that motivate workers and performance:
• skill variety
• task identity
• task significance
• job feedback
The individual elements are then proposed to lead to positive outcomes through three psychological states:
• experienced meaningfulness
• experienced responsibility
• the knowledge of results
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